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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where did Christopher Columbus think he was when he sailed into the Caribbean Sea in 1492?
In Asia, in the Indies
Why are Native Americans called "Native Americans"?
Because they were the first peoples to live in the Americas.
When do scientists believe that the first peoples came to the Americas?
Anywhere 14,000 to 30,000 years ago.
How long did the last ice age last in the Americas?
65,000 years
T or F
When the first people come to the America's the Earth was just emerging from a tropical climate?
False. The Earth was emerging from an ice age.
T or F
Some scientists believe that the first people to settle in the Americas came from Asia.
What passage lies between the eastern tip of Asia and Alaska?
The Berring Strait
Who are "hunters and gatherers"?
People who survived by searching for wild plants and animals to eat.
Scientists think that the people from Asia who settled in the Americas came via what 2 ways:
1. Crossing the "landmass" called "Beringia",
2. By boat
How long ago did the Ice Age end?
10,000 years ago.
What also migrated with the people from Asia who settled in the Americas?
Game animals
What is the term used to describe the surroundings in which something exists?
What is prehistory?
The time before written records
T or F
The original Native Americans kept written records.
False. The Europeans who explored the Americas brought with them a written record system
What are artifacts?
Objects made by humans that show how they once lived.
What do archaeologists study?
They study and learn about past cultures from the artifacts they left behind.
What is a pictograph?
Pictures often drawn or painted on cave walls, ledges and cliffs by past cultures
What are petroglyphs?
Carvings made in rock by past cultures.
T or F
Texas does not have any pictographs or petroglyphs.
False. There are over 250 sites with pictographs and petroglyphs.
How do archaelogist determine how ways of life changed over time?
Deeper objects are older than objects found nearer to the surface.
What is carbon dating?
A testing method scientist use to measure the amount of Carbon-14 that remains in an object.
What kind of objects contain Carbon-14?
Formerly living objects
What test do scientists use today to study prehistoric peoples?
DNA testing.
Through DNA testing, some scientists believe that prehistoric people came from.................?
1. Africa
2. Europe
3. South Pacific
When did Europeans come to explore Texas?
In the 1500's
List the 3 period names that scientist use for the span between the arrival of the first Native Americans and the arrival of the Europeans?
1. Paleolithic Era
2. Archaic Era
3. Late Prehistoric
What years does the Paleolithic Era cover?
Prehistoric times to 6,000 B.C.
What years does the Archaic Era last?
6,000 B.C. to 700 A.D.
What years does the Late Prehistoric Era last?
700 A.D. to the 1500's when the Europeans arrived.
T or F
Native Americans did not use horses until the Europeans brought them.
What did the early Native Americans use to hunt game?
Spears tipped with sharpened point of flint.
What type of stone was used as the tip on spears used by early Native Americans to hunt game?
What animal is the Bighorn Bison related to?
What is "pemmican?"
A mixture of dried meat mixed with animal fat and berries used by early Native Americans
What event altered plant life across Texas?
The end of the Ice Age
What did the Native American's invent that could throw a spear with great force?
The Atlatl.
Describe the Atlatl:
A stick about 2 rfeet long with a wooden hook at the far end to hold the spear's shaft.
Why did Native Americans travel in smaller groups during the Archaic Era?
So they would not scare off the fast-moving game.
What was the name of the smaller groups of Native Americans who traveled during the Archaic Era?
How often would bands get together?
Only several times during the year.
List some of the tools used by Native Americans during the Archaic Era:
1. flint knives
2. scrapers
3. awls
4. crude grind stones
5. baskets made of parts of plants
By approx. what year were Native Americans living in East Texas living in villages?
500 B.C.
List the 3 influences on Native Americans that affected great changes for them from 500 B.C. to 500 AD:
1. Arrival of buffalo
2. Bow and arrow
3. Farming north of Mexico
By 1400 AD, how had the Native Americans in Texas differentiated in their lifestyles:
1. In East Texas and far West Texas, NA lived in villages and farmed for most of what they ate; they had well developed ideas about society and religion
2. In South Texas, NA remained hunters and gatherers due to the more arid environment
Where did the major buffalo-hunting NA cultures live?
On the plains and plateaus of the Panhandle and Central Texas.
T or F
A bow and arrow could shoot farther than a spear thrown from an atlatl.
List the 4 culture regions of Texas that anthropologists use to group the NA based on their ways of life:
1. Southeaster
2. Plains
3. Puebloan
4. Western Gulf
Who was the 1st person to study many of Texas's prehistoric sites?
James Pearce
List the 3 groups of NAs who are considered in the Southeastern culture region?
1. Caddoes
2. Atakapans
3. Wichitas
What is the term used to describe 2 or more extended families of NAs that lived together under one leader?
What is the term used to describe a number of bands who foloowed the same leader and shared the same territory and culture?
What culture group was part of a larger culture known as the Missippian or Mound Builder culture?
The Caddoes
Where did the Caddoes live?
Mississippi River valley
How many condederacies were the Caddoes divided into?
What is the term used to describe alliances of people or groups that unite for a common purpose?
How many confederacies and tribes lived in Texas?
2 confederacies and 1/2 the tribes
When did the Caddoes move into the Piney Woods?
late during the Prehistoric Era
List 2 other states that the Caddoes settled into?
Oklahoma and Arkansas
T or F
Caddo is the language spoken by @ 25 separate tribes that lived in that region.
Which NAs had the most advanced culture of all the Texas Indians?
The Caddoes
List the major crops of the Caddoes:
1. Corn
2. beans
3. Squash
4. Sunflower seeds
Describe the shape of Caddo houses:
Cone-shaped building of poles covered with cane and grass
T or F
Some Caddo houses could hold up to 8-10 families.
Describe the Caddo religion:
One creator who spoke through their chief; other gods and spirits were called upon to help with daily lives
T or F
The Caddoes relied on a sacred fire located in a temple that burned always to light their own fires.
True or F
Crops were more important to the Caddoes than meat and fish.
T or F
Caddo men worked alongside Caddo women in the crop fields.
What is the origin of the name, Texas?
The Caddo cry, Tay-yas, which means "friend" used to greet strangers
T or F
Caddoes built their houses as a community effort.
What did the Caddoes use to trade with?
1. Clay pottery
2. Hunting bows made of Osage orange wood
What is the name for the NAs who lived south of the Caddoes?
Atakapan peoples
What NAs lived in 5 bands or small tribes that spread across the Coastal Plains from Louisiana to Galveston Bay
Atakapan Peoples
Name the Atakapan band that lived on the south edge of the Piney Woods between the Trinity and Brazos Rivers:
T or F
Hunting was more important to the Bidais people than to the Caddoes?
Who were the NAs who lived along the Galveston Bay region?
4 bands of the Akokisas
T or F
The Akokisas returned to the coast during the Fall to live in larger moree permanent villages.
False. The Akokisas moved inland during the Fall seasons
What group of NAs lived next to the Caddoes during the Prehistoric times and then later moved north to what is now Kansas?
List the 3 tribes of the Wichita peoples that were formed for protection?
Which 2 tribes of the Wichita peoples settled farther south along the Brazos River?
Tawakonis and Wacos
Which NAs were shorter and darker than most of the other Texas Indians?
Why did the Wichitas call themselves the word that means "racccoon eyes?"
Because the Wichita men tattoed around their eyes
How did the Wichitas become hunters?
From horses obtained by the Kiowas who were a great hunting culture of the Great Plains
After the fall harvest the Wichitas would leave their homes and spend the winters hunting buffalo and living in what?
What is the name for the cone-shaped tent made of poles and covered in animal hides
Why were tipis ideal houses for hunting peoples?
Because they were easy to move from place to place
T or F
Some experts classify the Wichita with the Plains culture rather than the Southeastern culture.
Cite one theory to explain how the Indians first got horses:
Some Indians in New Mexico grew angry about serving the Spaniards and decided to escape using the horses to get away
What changed the Plains Indians forever?
The horse
What is the name for the NA group of independent bands that first lived on the Edwards Plateau west of present-day Austin and San Antonio?
Who pushed the Tonkawa away from the Edwards Plateau during the 1600-1700s?
Apaches and Comanches
What caused the Tonkawas bands to unite as a tribe in the 1700s?
Pressure from the Apaches and other Indians
What was the main source of food for the Tonkawas?
T or F
Once the Tonkawas had horses they tried to move to the plains.
True but the Apaches and the Comanches prevented this.
What group of NAs were pushed east and became hunters and gatherers of rabbits, skunks, rats, rattlesnakes and land turtles?
The Tonkawas
Which NAs moved south from present day Canada across the Great Plains and became fierce fighters?
Where does the name "Apache" come from?
The Zuni word, apachu, which means enemy.
T or F
The Apache is one single tribe.
False. Apaches are from 6 tribes related by a common language.
List the 2 tribes of Apaches who were very important to Texas history:
Lipans and Mescaleros
Where did the Lipans first appear?
Texas panhandle
Who were the first NAs to ride horses?
Who were the Apaches that settled into what is now New Mexico?
What tribe of Apaches' name is derived from the Mescal cactus which was depended for much food and drink?
Where did the Comanches first live?
Rocky Mountains @ what is now Wyoming
The Comanches entire way of life depended on what?
What is the name for peoples who wander from place to place in search of food?
What did Comanches live in?
T or F
Comanche women had short hair while the men allowed their hair to grow long, parting it in the middle with braids on each side.
T or F
The Lipans and the Comanches got along at first.
T or F
Kiowas early history is largely unknown.
Which NAs arrived in Texas late and occupied only the very northern part of the panhandle?
Who were the Kiowas bitter enemies until 1790?
Which NA had an important religious celebration of the Sun Dance?
T or F
Kiowas men would dance up to 3 or 4 days straight without sleep in order to strengthen themselves during their Sun Dance celebration.
What term describes something that is handed down from parent to child?
What is the term used to describe peoples who help each other to benefit them both?
Why were the Comanches so successful on the plains?
They were expert horse riders that armed themselves with shields, lances and bows and arrows becoming warriors of the plains
How far back does the Pueblo culture go back in time?
8,000 years ago
List the 3 groups of the Pueblo peoples:
1. Jumano people
2. Conchos people
3. Tiguas people
What is the term for a mix of wet clay and straw that is made into bricks and dried in the sun?
Which group of Pueblo people established villages on the land between the Pecos and the Rio Grande?
Jumano people
T or F
Jumano men did most of the farming?
Why did the Spaniards call the Jumano people, "striped people"?
They painted their faces in horizontqal lines
What is the name of the first permanent town in Texas?
How was Yselta developed?
When the Spanish resttled @ 300 Tiguas in a pass between 2 mountain ranges
Which NA culture did not organized themselves into tribes because the environment could not support large groups of people?
What formed the major supply of the Coahuiltecan's diet?
What are Javelinas?
Wild pigs
T or F
Over time most of the Coahuiltecans died from diseases brought from Europe by the Spanish.
Where did the Karankawas live?
Along the Gulf Coast
What did the Karankawas use to travel in when they lived along the coast?
dug-out Canoes
How did the Karankawas communicate between their groups?
Building fires and using smoke signals
What group of NAs was completely wiped out by disease and finally by an attack by a group of settlers in 1858?
How many NAs live in Texas today?
T or F
Most of the 100,000 NAs living in Texas today come from tribes outside of Texas?
What is the term for land that is set aside by the government for use by Indian peoples?
List the only original NA culture that remains in Tesas today:
Tiguas have a tiny reservation in El Paso
List the 3 reservations in Texas:
1. Tigua in El Paso
2. Alabama-Coushatta in East Texas
3. Kickapoos near Eagle Pass
Which NA group used dugged out canoes?
T or F
Artifacts are objects made by humans that show how they once lived
T or F
Nomads are people who wander from place to place in search of food.
T or F
A kiva is a mix of wet clay and straw that is made into bricks and dried in the sun.
False. Adobe is the mix of wet clay and straw that is dried in the sun.
T or F
A tribe is a number of bands that followed the same leader and shared the same territory and culture
T or F
Relative location divides the Earth into eastern and western halves
T or F
Relativelocation tells you where a place is in comparison to another place.
Location, place, interaction, movement, and region are what?
The 5 themes of geography