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178 Cards in this Set

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List the 2 Greek words that geography originates from:
1. geo
2. graphein
What does the word "geo" mean?
of the earth
What does the word "graphein" mean?
to write or to study
What does the word "geography" mean?
The study of the Earth
What word is used when referring to the Earth's shapes and types of land?
Landforms
What is the name for people who study the Earth?
Geographers
What are geographers primarily interested in?
The forces that created landforms.
Describe the "plate tectonics" theory.
1.This is the theory that explains that the earth's surface, or crust, is broken into plates.
2.These plates float on top of magma.
3.The movement of the plates is very slow.
4.Depending on the nature of the plate meovement and the plates themselves,different landforms can result.
What is the word for the layer of liquid laying just beneath the Earth's crust?
magma
What is magma?
The liquid rock that is beneath the Earth's crust.
What areas are threatened by Earthquakes?
Where the Earth's plates meet.
What is the named for the landform formed when one plate slides under another forming great heat and molten rock forcing it to burst through the Earth's surface?
A volcanoe.
What is formed when plates crash together?
Mountains.
List 2 factors that also effect the landforms?
Wind and water
What is name for the wearing away of landforms from wind and water?
erosion
How does sand effect the landforms?
Over millions of years wind and water erode mountain ranges with rivers, streams, and wind carrying the sand which acts like sandpaper creating valley, canyons, and other landforms
What is the name for a huge sheet of ice that moves across the land?
A glacier
T or F
At times in the Earth'sw history, glaciers have covered much of the surface of the planet.
True
What is the name for the condition of the earth's atmosphere at any given time?
Weather
What is the name for the average weather of a place over a period of 20 to 30 years?
Climate
True or False
Texas has only a few known climates.
False. Texas experiences every type of climate known.
What determines the growth of vegetation?
Climate
What is the term for the plant life that grows in an area?
Vegetation
True or False:
Humans do not have as great an impact on the Earth as any of the Earth-shaping forces.
False. Humans have as great an impact.
What is the term for the customs, ideas, beliefs, and skills of a people?
Culture
What helps explain what a place is like?
Culture
What type of geography involves the study of the land and its features?
physical geography
What type of geography involves the study about people and their ways?
human geography
True or False:
Physical and human geography are seperate.
False.
What is the "heart" to studying geography?
The connections between a location's physical geography and its human geography.
What can Galveston Island expect from time to time due to it's geography?
Violent storms.
What have the people of Galveston Island built to help protect them from flooding?
A sea wall.
Why can geography help in forecasting the future for a location?
Can indicate patterns of population of growth.
What is an "aquafier"?
an underground layer of porous rock tht contains water.
When did the people of Galveston Island realize that they had to do something to help protect them from violent storms?
After a terrible hurricane in 1900.
How long is the sea wall built along Galveston Island to help protect it?
10 miles.
How does Galvestons Island's sea wall help protect it?
The seawall reduces flood damage by breaking the force of the storm's waves.
What is the study of the structure of the earth?
Geography
What is the study of living things?
Biology
What is the study of how people make, distribute, and consume goods?
Economics
What is the name for people who study the development of humans?
Anthropologists.
List the 5 themes of geography:
1. location
2. place
3. interaction
4. movement
5. region
What is the term for the exact location of a place?
The absolute location.
What do geographers use to describe the absolute location of a place?
A grid of numbered lines on a globe or map.
What are the numbered lines on a globe or map that used to determine a location's absolute location?
latitude and longitude
What doe lines of latitude measure?
They measure distances north and south of the Equator.
What is the term for the imaginary line that divides the Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres?
The Equator
What is the other name do geographers use for latitude lines?
Parallels.
What is the term for the lines that measure distances east and west from the Prime Meridian?
Lines of longitude.
What is the other term for lines of longitude?
Meridians.
What is the term for the line of longitude that divides the Earth into the eastern and western hemispheres?
Prime Meridian
Where does the Earth's prime meridian run through?
Greenwich, England.
What is the measurement unit used to measure lines of latitude and longitude?
Degrees.
What does this mean:
27degreesN/97degreesW?
27 degrees north of the equator and 97 degrees west of the prime meridian.
What is the term for the location of a place compared to another place?
Relative location.
What is the term for a location that needs another place to compare it to?
Relative location.
What helps show the relationships between places?
Relative location.
What helps explain why Houston has developed a strong shipping industry?
Its relative location to the coast.
Beaumont's relative location to oil explain what?
It's growth was due to its relative location to oil.
How do geographer's describe a place?
In terms of both its physical and its human features.
T or F
Most of East Texas is mountainous.
False. Most of East Texas is flat.
List types of human features that describe a place:
1. Relgion
2. language
3. food
4. sports
What does the term "Karankawa" mean?
It is the name for the tribe of Native Americans who lived along the Gulf Coast.
Where did the Caddoes live?
The eastern part of Texas and present-day Louisiana.
What served as a main staple for the Karankawa people because of their location?
Fish and shellfish
T or F
The Caddoes practiced farming by clearing fields by setting fire to them then planting crops?
True
What is the term used to describe the relationship between peoples and their environment?
Interaction
What development in West Texas helped to increase growth in the second half of the 1800's?
Railroads.
List the two types of movement:
1. Transportation
2. Communication
What is the term for the movement of people and goods?
Transportation
What is the term for the movement of ideas?
Communication
What happens to a place when there is an exchange of information and things?
Change occurrs.
When did the Spanish arrive in Texas?
1500's.
How did the horse arrive in Texas?
By the Spanish in the 1500's.
What is the term for the area of the world that has similar, unifying characteristics?
Region.
How can a region be defined?
1. by physical traits
2. by culture
What is the most accurate "picture" of the Earth?
A Globe.
What is the term for a sphere with map of the EArth printed on it?
A globe.
What is the term for different surfaces and elevations indicated on a globe?
Relief.
What is the comparison of the size of a globe and the Earth?
Scale.
What is the problem with globes for geographers who want to study the Earth?
The scale of globes are small and cannot show much detail.
Why aren't maps the perfect substitute for a globe?
A map is flat and it is impossible to completely flatten all of the Earth's curves onto a map
T or F
Every map has a degree of distortion.
True
What is the term for a map that provides a special type of information about a place?
Special purpose map.
What type of map is a road map?
A special purpose map
What type of map highlights many of the physical feature of a place, such as mountains, plains, rivers, and lakes?
A Physical Map.
How does a physical map show relief?
Color and shading.
What type of map show countries, counties, states, and cities?
A Political map.
Where does the government of Texas reside?
Austin, Texas
T or F
Maps can combine different features.
True. Ex. political and physical
How do geographers transfer the Earth's surface onto a flat map?
A Projection.
What does the Mercator projection show?
The shapes of landmasses accurately BUT NOT the accurate size.
Does distortion get better or worse as you examine the Mercator projector farther and farther away from the Equator?
It get worse as you look farther away from the equator.
List 3 types of graphs:
1. bar
2. line
3. pie
What types of graphs show precise information?
Bar and line
What type of diagram shows how something would look if you caould view it from the side?
Cross-sectional diagram
What type of diagram "cuts" the item in half?
cross-sectional
In Texas elevation rises or lowers as you travel west?
West.
What is a good way to make comparisons between items in a number of different categories.
A table.
List the types of tools geographers use to study a place:
1. graphs
2. diagrams
3. tables
What percent of the land area of the United States is made up of the state Texas?
7 percent.
How many differenct geographic regions are in the state of Texas?
4
List the 4 geographic regions of Texas:
1. Coastal Plains
2. North Central Plains
3. Great Plains
4. Mountains and Basins
What continent is the United State of America located in?
North America continent
What Texas region wraps along the Gulf and the Atlantic Coasts?
Coastal plain
What types of climate characterizes Texas?
Hot summers and mild winters.
T or F
Climate in Texas differs greatly across the state.
True
T or F
Texas has not had a problem with drought.
False.
What is the term for a long period in which rain falls at a much lower rate than usual?
Drought.
What region in Texas covers the eastern and southern part of the state?
Coastal plains.
What other states does the Coastal plains continue into beside Texas?
1. Oklahoma
2. Arkansas
3. Louisiana
Describe the western border of the Coastal Plains in Texas:
Stretches along a curving line from the Red River south and west to the Rio Grande
What fault line forms the western border of the Coastal Plains in Texas?
Balcones Fault
Define what an escarpment is:
A steep cliff produced by a fault
Describe the area along the Balcones fault that is an escarpment:
Between Del Rio and Austin
T or F
The Balcones Escarpment rises sharply as much as 3,000 feet.
False. It rises only as much as 1,000 feet.
What is along the southern and western edge of Texas's Coastal plain?
Rio Grande River
What forms the border between Mexico and the U.S.?
Rio Grande River
What makes up most of the eastern edge of the Coastal Plains?
Gulf of Mexico
How long is the Texas coastline along the Gulf of Mexico?
624 miles
How many barrier islands does Texas have?
7
In what direction does the Coastal plains slope?
Toward the Gulf of Mexico
How tall is the land at the western edge of the Coastal Plains?
1,000 ft above sea level.
Describe the land along the coast of of the Coastal Plains:
low and marshy
Where is the Coastal Priarie located?
Along the Gulf Coast above Baffin Bay
Where are the Piney Woods located?
In Texas, north and east of the Coastal Prairie
What is to the west of the Piney Woods?
Post Oak Belt and the Eastern Cross Timbers, both fingers of a forest belt that extends down into Texas from the north
What region is located north and west of the Coastal Plains of Texas?
North Central Plains
Where does the North Central plains start?
Canada
What region covers most of the central U.S.?
North Central Plains
What region borders the North Central Plains to the east?
Coastal Plains
What forms the northern border of the North Central plains?
Red River
T or F
The North Central Plains region includes a small part of the Panhandle area of Texas.
True
Where to the North does the North
Central Plains end?
Caprock Escarpment
What seperates the North Central Plains from the Great Plains?
Caprock Escarpment
To the South where does the North Central Plains end?
Edwards Plateau
In which direction does the land of the North Central Plains slope?
From west to east
How high is the Caprock Escarpment?
2,000 ft above sea level.
What is the elelvation at the eastern edge of the North Central Plains in Texas?
1,000 ft above sea level
In what region can buttes be found?
southern part of the North Central Plains
What are buttes?
steep-sided hills
What is the term for larger than buttes landforms that have flat tops?
mesas
What forms mesas?
erosion
What area is in the eastern part of the North Central Plains?
Grand Prairie
What area is just to the west of the Grand Prairie in the North Central Plains?
Western Cross Timbers
What area is to the west of the Western Cross Timbers in the North Central Plains?
Rolling Plains
What type of agri-business dominates the North Central Plains?
Farming and ranching
What part of Texas is also part of a vast region in the U.S. with the same name?
Great Plains
What region contains large stretches of flat rolling land?
Great Plains
What seperates the Great Plains from the North Central Plains?
Caprock Escarpment
What forms the Texas boundary to the north in the Great Plains region?
The state line dividing Texas and Oklahoma
What forms the western edge of the Great Plains?
The border with New Mexico north of the Pecos River
What forms the southern boundary of the Great Plains?
The Edwards Plateau
List the distinct sections:
1. High Plains
2. Edwards Plateau
Where are the Palo Duro Canyon and the Canadian Breaks located?
High Plains
Where is the Llano Estacado located?
southern High Plains
What does "Llano Estacado" mean?
Staked Plain
Where is the Hill Country located?
Edwards Plateau
Describe the vegetation of the Coastal Plain?
Fruits and vegetables, cattle
Describe the vegetation of the Great Plains:
Dry area with very few trees. Lots of grassland, excellent for grazaing cattle,sheep and goats.
What makes up the westernmost part of Texas?
Mountains and basins
What Texas region is also part of the larger U.S. Rocky Mountains?
Mountain and Basin Region
What borders the Mountains and Basins region to the north?
New Mexico's border
What borders the Mountains and Basins region to the south and west?
Rio Grande
What forms the eastern border of the Mountains and Basins region?
Toyah Basin and Stockton Plateau
Where are the Guadalupe Mountains located?
In the Mountains and Basins region of Texas
Where are scattered mountains and flat desert basins located in Texas?
Mountains and Basins region
What is the tallest landform in Texas?
Guadalupe Peak
How tall is the Guadalupe Peak?
8,751 ft.
Name the 5 main mountain regions in the Mountain and Basins Region in Texas:
1. Guadalupe Mts.
2. Davis Mts.
3. Chalk Mts.
4. Glass Mts.
5. Chisos Mts.
What is the major river of the Mountains and Basins Region of Texas?
Rio Grande
What marks the Rio Grande as it winds through the Mountains and Basins region of Texas?
Deep canyons
What county has Big Bend in it?
Brewster County
Where does the Rio Grande make a large S-shpe curve?
Big Bend
What area in Texas has the driest?
Mountains and Basins
Name 3 artists that were famous for Texas landscapes:
1. George Catlin
2. Julian Onderdonk
3. Al Barnes
What did Julian Onderdonk call his small sketches?
"memory notes"
What 2 rivers appear in George Catlins painting?
1. Red River
2. False Washita