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28 Cards in this Set

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Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction is the formation of new individuals from the cell(s) of a single parent. It is very common in plants; less so in animals.
Carbon cycle
The carbon cycle is the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. Large amounts of carbon exist in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2).
Cell organelles (ribosome, mitochondria, chloroplast, vacuole, lysosome)
Cell organelles: a structure (as a mitochondrion) in a cell that performs a special function
Ribosome: one of numerous small RNA-containing particles in a cell that are sites of protein synthesis
Mitochondria: one of the round or long bodies found in the cytoplasm of cells outside the nucleus that are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes and are important centers of metabolic processes which use oxygen and produce energy
Chloroplast: a cellular part that contains chlorophyll and is the location of photosynthesis
Vacuole: a cavity in bodily tissues or in the cytoplasm of a cell that is usually filled with fluid
Lysosome: A membrane-bound organelle in the cytoplasm of most cells containing various hydrolytic enzymes that function in intracellular digestion.
chloroplast
a cellular part that contains chlorophyll and is the location of photosynthesis
chromosome
Pronunciation: 'krO-m&-"sOm, -"zOm
Function: noun
: one of the rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing bodies of a cell nucleus that contain all or most of the genes of an organism and can be seen especially during cell division
compound
Pronunciation: 'käm-"paund
Function: noun
1 : a word consisting of parts that are words <"rowboat," "high school," and "light-year" are compounds>
2 : something formed by a union of elements or parts; especially : a distinct substance formed by the union of two or more chemical elements in definite proportion by weight
concentration
Pronunciation: "kän(t)-s&n-'trA-sh&n, -sen-
Function: noun
1 : the act or process of concentrating : the state of being concentrated; especially : direction of attention on a single object <don't disturb my concentration>
2 : a concentrated mass
3 : the amount of an ingredient or part in relation to that of others : STRENGTH <the concentration of salt in a solution>
cytoplasm
Pronunciation: 'sIt-&-"plaz-&m
Function: noun
: the protoplasm of a plant or animal cell except for the nucleus
density
Pronunciation: 'den(t)-s&t-E
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural -ties
1 : the quality or state of being dense
2 : the quantity of something per unit volume, unit area, or unit length: as a : the mass of a substance per unit volume <density expressed in grams per cubic centimeter> b : the average number of individuals or units in a unit of area or volume <a population density of 500 per square mile>
diffusion
Pronunciation: dif-'yü-zh&n
Function: noun
1 : a diffusing or a being diffused
2 : the mixing of particles of liquids, gases, or solids so that they move from a region of high concentration to one of lower concentration
3 : the scattering of light by reflection from a rough surface or by passage through a translucent material (as frosted glass)
element
Pronunciation: 'el-&-m&nt
Function: noun
1 a : one of the four substances air, water, fire, or earth formerly believed to make up the physical universe b plural : forces of nature; especially : stormy or cold weather c : the state or place natural or suited to a person or thing <at school she was in her element>
2 : one of the parts of which something is made up: as a plural : the simplest principles of a subject of study b : one of the basic individual things that belong to a mathematical set or class -- called also member c : any of more than 100 fundamental substances that consist of atoms of only one kind and that cannot be separated by ordinary chemical means into simpler substances d : a distinct part of a device used in the composing of print matter
gene
Pronunciation: 'jEn
Function: noun
: a part of DNA or sometimes RNA that is usually located on a chromosome and that contains chemical information needed to make a particular protein (as an enzyme) controlling or influencing an inherited bodily trait or activity (as eye color, height, or metabolism) or that influences or controls the activity of another gene or genes
mitochondria
Pronunciation: "mIt-&-'kän-drE-&n
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural mitochon•dria /-drE-&/
: one of the round or long bodies found in the cytoplasm of cells outside the nucleus that are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes and are important centers of metabolic processes which use oxygen and produce energy
mitosis
Pronunciation: mI-'tO-s&s
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural mi•to•ses /-'tO-"sEz/
1 : a process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell and that results in the formation of two new nuclei with the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus -- compare MEIOSIS
2 : a cell division in which mitosis occurs
molecule
Pronunciation: 'mäl-i-"kyü(&)l
Function: noun
1 : the smallest particle of a substance having all the characteristics of the substance <a molecule of water> <a molecule of oxygen>
2 : a very small bit : PARTICLE
nucleus
Pronunciation: 'n(y)ü-klE-&s
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural nu•clei /-klE-"I /; also -cle•us•es
from modern Latin nucleus "the central part of something," from Latin nucleus "kernel," derived from nux "nut"
organ
2 : a part (as a kidney or leaf) of a person, plant, or animal that consists of cells and tissues and is specialized to do a particular task -- compare SYSTEM 1b
Organ system
a group of bodily organs that together carry on one or more vital functions <the digestive system> c : the body considered as a functional unit <a system weakened by disease> d : an orderly plan or method of governing or arranging <a democratic system of government> e : a major division of rocks usually larger than a series and including all formed during a period or era
osmosis
Pronunciation: äz-'mO-s&s, äs-
Function: noun
1 : the passage of material (as a solvent) through a membrane (as of a plant or animal cell) that will not allow all kinds of molecules to pass
2 : a taking in (as of knowledge) as if by the process of osmosis
- os•mot•ic /-'mät-ik/ adjective
product
A molecule which is formed as a result of a chemical reaction.
reactant
Pronunciation: rE-'ak-t&nt
Function: noun
: a substance that enters into and is changed by a chemical reaction
respiration
Pronunciation: "res-p&-'rA-sh&n
Function: noun
1 : the act or process of breathing
2 : the physical processes (as breathing and diffusion) by which a living thing obtains the oxygen it needs to produce energy and eliminate waste gases (as carbon dioxide)
3 : any of various chemical reactions (as oxidation) in cells that release energy from food molecules (as glucose)
Run-off
water from rain or snow that flows over the surface of the ground and finally into streams
tissue
a mass or layer of cells usually of one kind together with the uniting or enclosing substance around and between them that form the basic structural materials of a plant or an animal -- compare CONNECTIVE TISSUE
transpiration
Pronunciation: tran(t)s-p&-'rA-sh&n
Function: noun
: the process by which plants give off water vapor through the stomata in their leaves
volume
The amount of space matter occupies.
Weather data
Data such as mean, median, highs and lows, outliers that describe the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, with respect to variables such as temperature, moisture, wind velocity, and barometric pressure.
Weight (gravitational pull on mass/SI unit is Newton)
the force with which a body is attracted toward the earth or a heavenly body by gravitation