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28 Cards in this Set

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Allusion (define concept with simple illustrations)
An allusion is a literary device that stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in the reader's mind with only a word or two. Allusion means 'reference'. It relies on the reader being able to understand the allusion and being familiar with all of the meaning hidden behind the words.
Antecedent (pronoun/antecedent agreement)
An antecedent is generally the noun or noun phrase to which an anaphor refers in a co-reference, however an antecedent also can be a clause, especially when the anaphor is a demonstrative.
bias
A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a preference to one particular point of view or ideological perspective.
Clincher sentence
A paragraph ends with a clincher/transition sentence.
• Clincher Sentences
-Similar to topic sentences.
-Form the conclusion of the paragraph.
-Usually the last sentence in the paragraph.
-Closes the paragraph.
-Names the main idea of the paragraph.
-Sometimes summarizes or names the details of the paragraph.
-Is different from the topic sentence (should use different words than the topic
sentence).
-Sometimes they start with a concluding transition (a word or group of words that tell the reader that you are finishing something.)
•Three types of Clincher Sentences:
-General-summarizes only the main idea of a paragraph, it may make the reader think more about the topic.
-Clueing-names the main idea and ties the details together with a clue word (same clue words we used earlier in the clueing topic sentence).
-Specific-names the main idea, names the specific details that were covered in the paragraph order.
Coherent order
Pronunciation: kO-'hi(&)r
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): co•hered; co•her•ing
1 a : to hold together firmly as parts of the same mass b : to consist of parts that cohere
2 a : to become united in principles, relationships, or interests b : to be in agreement between parts
In writing, coherent order is created by using transitions. Coherent literally means "to stick together." In order for a paragraph and even an essay to stick together, we must use these great words called transitions.
Composition structure (structural patterns in composition)
Personal essay
Narrative or descriptive
Describing a process
Comparison and Contrast
Using ExamplesClassification/Analysis
Developing a definition
Evaluative Essay (Review)
Cause and Effect
Argumentative Essay
Writing about literature
Writing a research paper
Cross-reference
A cross-reference (noun) is an instance within a document of referring to information elsewhere (either within the same work or in a separate work). To cross-reference or to cross-refer (verb) is to make such connections
debate
Pronunciation: di-'bAt
Function: noun
: a verbal argument: as a : the discussion of a motion before a legislature b : a regulated discussion of a problem between two matched sides
derivation
Pronunciation: "der-&-'vA-sh&n
Function: noun
1 a : the formation (as by the addition of a prefix or suffix) of a word from another word or root b : an act of finding out or stating how a word was formed c : ETYMOLOGY2 a : a point of origin : SOURCE b : development from a source : DESCENT c : an act or process of deriving
dramatization
Pronunciation: 'dram-&-"tIz, 'dräm-
Function: verb
1 : to make into a drama
2 : to present or represent in a dramatic manner
Elaboration (supportive details)
Pronunciation: i-'lab-&-"rAt
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -rat•ed; -rat•ing
1 : to work out in detail : DEVELOP <elaborate an idea>
2 : to give more details <elaborate on a story>
Facilitator (role identification/groups)
A facilitator is someone who skilfully helps a group of people understand their common objectives and plan to achieve them without personally taking any side of the argument.
Gerund and gerund phrase
Gerund: a gerund is the form of a verb, but it is not a verb. Second, it is a noun. And finally, it ends in "ing."
Gerund phrase - The gerund phrase includes the gerund and the object of the gerund or any modifiers related to the gerund.
Infer from unstated assumptions
Infer: Pronunciation: in-'f&r
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): in•ferred; in•fer•ring
1 : to arrive at as a conclusion
2 : 1GUESS 1, surmise
3 : IMPLY 2
Unstated assumptions: a fact or statement that is taken for granted but is not said directly
jargon
Pronunciation: 'jär-g&n, -"gän
Function: noun
1 : a mixed language used for communication between peoples whose native languages are different
2 : the special language of a particular activity or group <legal jargon>
3 : language that is not clear and is full of long important-sounding words
Logic (inductive/deductive reasoning)
Pronunciation: 'läj-ik
Function: noun
1 : the study of the rules and tests of sound reasoning
2 : REASONING 1; especially : sound reasoning <no logic in that remark>
3 : connection (as of facts or events) in a way that seems reasonable <the logic of a situation>
4 : the arrangement of circuit elements (as in a computer) needed for computation
Mnemonic device
Pronunciation: ni-'män-ik
Function: adjective
: an activity or strategy assisting or intended to assist memory
Oral language techniques (inflection, enunciation, rate, and pitch)
Inflection: Pronunciation: in-'flek-sh&n
Function: noun
1 : a change in the pitch or tone of a person's voice
2 : the change in the form of a word showing its case, gender, number, person, tense, mood, voice, or comparison
Enunciation: Pronunciation: E-'n&n(t)-sE-"At
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -at•ed; -at•ing
1 : to make known publicly : PROCLAIM
2 : to pronounce clearly : ARTICULATE
rate Main Entry: 2rate
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English rate "an estimated or determined value," from early French rate (same meaning), derived from Latin rata, literally, "fixed, determined," from (pro) rata (parte) "according to the fixed proportion"
1 a : a constant ratio between two things <a rate of exchange> b : a price or charge set according to a scale or standard <hotel rates> <tax rate>
2 : a quantity, amount, or degree of something measured in units of something else <the unemployment rate>
3 : a level of quality : CLASS
pitch: a : highness or lowness of sound b : a standard frequency for tuning instruments <the oboe sounded the pitch>
Participial phrase and participles
Participle: First and foremost, a participle is the form of a verb, but it is not a verb. Second, it is an adjective. And finally, it ends in "ing" or "ed" or "en."
Participial phrase: The participial phrase includes the participle and the object of the participle or any words modified by or related to the participle.
Persuasive writing techniques
Ethos, logos, pathos
Ethos: speaker’s character as it appears to the audience
Logos: logic and rationality
Pathos: appeal to emotions
preface
Pronunciation: 'pref-&s
Function: noun
: a section that introduces a book or a speech
reliability
Able to be trusted; when referring to a source: Using reliable sources assures the reader that what is being presented meets the Wikipedia standards for verifiability, originality, and neutrality. Accurate citation allows the reader to go to those sources and gives appropriate credit to the author of the work.
Sensory detail
Details that appeal to the senses
Shades of meaning
Understanding the difference between words like “softly” and “quietly”
Synthesize/analyze
Synthesize: to combine often very different ideas into an ordered whole
Analyze: an explanation of the nature and meaning of something
tension
a state of mental unrest that is often accompanied by physical signs (as perspiring) of emotion b : a state of unfriendliness between individuals or groups
Thesis statement
A thesis statement in an essay is a sentence that explicitly identifies the purpose of the paper or previews its main ideas.
Writing process
Prewriting – brainstorming, graphic organizers, story starters
Writing – first draft; just write
Revising – changing things in the textEditing – checking spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary
Publishing – final copy, neat, correct format