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24 Cards in this Set

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Describe the types of group tasks: additive, disjunctive, conjunctive
Additive - group members separate performances are added to produce a combined effect.
Disjunctive - outcome is affected by the most effective group member.
Conjunctive - outcome is limited by the least effective group member
How did Zimbardo (1978) demonstrate the deindividuation concept?
Prison study - students were assigned to prison guard or prisoner roles. After 6 days study had to be stopped because the students overidentified with their roles and the "prisoners" were becoming highly depressed and the "guards" were becoming abusive with their power.
The tendency for people in groups to make riskier decisions than individuals is known as ___.
Risky shift - b/c of this they can also be more creative and innovative.
People in groups tend to become more extreme in their views in a group. This is known as ___.
Response polarization.
Seeking consensus and unanimity more than they seek the best outcome within a group is ___
Group think - individuals lose critical evaluative capacity in favor of conformity to group.
When I watch the landscapers work on the yard, their work quality improves. This is known as ___.
Social facilitation - presence of others enhances individual performance. Occurs with simple and familiar tasks.
When my supervisor watches me conduct a psychotherapy session, my performance decreases. This is known as..
Social inhibition - task performance is compromised by others. Occurs with novel or complex tasks.
WHen a group of people are working together and there is no accountability for each person's work, you know some of them will do very little and work less hard. This is known as...
Social loafin. Anonymity enhances this.
Etic and emic are global views about human nature. What is the difference?
Etic - universal view of people - personality and behaviors develop in the same way across cultures. Old psychology perspective.
Emic - personalities and behaviors develop according to cultural norms. New psychological view.
Proxemics, kinesics, and paralanguage are all types of communication styles that differ depending on culture. WHat are each of those.
Proxemics - perception & use of personal space.
Kinesics - body language
Paralanguage - tone, rate, volumer, inflection of speech.
African Am, Asian Am, Hispanic AM, and Native Am's use high-context communication styles while Whites use low-context styles. What does that mean?
Whites focus on the message content more than non-verbal cues.
High-context communicators focus more on non-verbal cues. Ex. saying yes in a particular way in some cultures would indicate a refusal, but in White culture, No means No regardless of context.
There are 2 factors in acculturation process: cultural maintenance and contact/participation. What are these.
Cultural maintenance - extent to which cultural ID is viewed as important and attempts are made to maintain ID.
Contact/participation - extent to which immigrants become involved with other cultural groups.
In terms of MH utilization, African Am's and Native Am's are _______ and Asian Am's and HIspanic Am's are _____.
overdiagnosed (inappropriately served), underserved.
What are some key factors to remember about White culture?
Mastery over environment; future time orientation; individual emphasis over community; "doing"; traits of value - efficiency, task centeredness, indiv accomplishment, accumulation of goods/$$, control of impulses, dispassionate reason.
What are key qualities to remember when working with Hispanic & Hispanic Americans?
Family emphasis, cooperation over competition, traditional families are hierarchical and patriarchal. Valued female qualities - moral superiority, silent sufferers, strength, perserverance. Catholicism is strong- self-sacrifice, charity.

Tx: In Native language if possible, Family tx., informal, somatization of s/s. Curanderos common.
Qualities of Asian Americans.
Emphasis on harmony and balance over confrontation. Interdependence. Lineal hierarchy in families. "filial piety" - concern for others. Individual success reflects on family. Self-worth comes from fulfilling family role. Emotions suppressed. Obedience, formality, and researve in relations is favored. TX: shame in going to tx, somatization of s/s, structured tx is best, active and direct therapist. Expect initial restraint, desire for role education, concrete focus on problems, and intergenerational conflicts.
Qualities of Native Americans.
Live in harmony with nature. Collateral relations. Interference with one's spiritual fulfillment is frowned upon. Extended family and tribe important. Tribes vary greatly. Little distinction b/n mental and physical illness. High rates of alcoholism. Circular time orientation.
TX: low eye contact and direct questions. Self-disclosure is appreciated. Family tx. Provide space to develop trust. Long pauses. Story telling - metaphors.
Qualities of African Americans.
Extended family key; takes a village to raise a child philosophy; flexible sex roles. Healthy paranoia; different behaviors with Whites vs. Blacks. High unemployment, varied SES. 42% of prison population is Black. Lower suicide rate than Whites.
TX: probs with early termination. Create + alliance. Egalitarian. In testing, it is crucial to have trust.
Cultural issues in psychopathology?
Diagnoses vary in the way they manifest in different cultures.
Diagnoses differ in rate across cultures for environmental, sociocultural, and biases reasons.
Diagnoses differ across cultures - anorexia is a White d/o and qi gong (meditation induced psychosis) is a concept in CHina not US.
What is cultural encapsulation?
When the therapist judges others according to their own self-reference criteria.
What is cultural competence?
Ability to function effectively in the context of cultural differences.
What is Sue and Sue's (1990) Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model's 5 stages.
1. conformity - unequivocal preference for the dominant culture.
2. Dissonance - increasing awareness that not all values of dominant culture are beneficial to self.
3. Resistance/Immersion - reject dominant culture and strongly identify with own culture.
4. Introspection - recognize there are some positive and some negative aspects of dominant and own culture.
5. Integrative awareness - person appreciates unique aspects of both dominant and own culture.
Name and describe Helm's White Racial Identity Model.
1. Contact - 1st encounter the idea of Blacks.
2. Disintegration - acknowledgement of Whiteness and question prejudices being taught.
3. Reintegration - consciously acknowledges White ID including beliefs about superiority.
4. Psuedo-Independence - active questioning about the idea that Blacks are innately inferior.
5. Immersion - examines own racial ID and the goals is one of changing White person's attitudes.
6. Autonomy - no longer feel threatened by other races.
Name and describe the stages of the Gay and Lesbian Identity Development Model.
Prestage 1 - period prior to awareness of gay concept.
Stage 1 - identity confusion - person wonders if they are gay.
Stage 2- ID Comparison - concerns of being different emerge.
Stage 3 - ID Tolerance - homosexuality is accepted and attempts are made to increase self-esteem.
Stage 4 - ID Acceptance - increased contact with other homosexuals.
Stage 5 - ID Pride - "them vs. us" attitude, heterosexuality devalued.
Stage 6 - ID Synthesis - incrased sense of belonging in homosexual and heterosexual communities.