Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Functions of connective tissue
1. Connect
2. Support
3. Immunity
4. Tranportation
Cows Should Ignore Turds
Types of Connective Tissue
1. Ligaments - connects bone to bone

2. Tendons - connects bone to muscle

3. Cartilage - (3 types)

4. Blood

5. Bone

6. Fat
Loquacious Tina Could Bloody Blab Forever!
Cell Types in Connective Tissue
1. Fibroblast - forms ECM (extracellular matrix)

2. Chondroblast (cartilage former) - builds cartilage

3. Osteoblast - builds bone, doesn't BLAST it

4. Hematopoietic cells - form blood...poietic means to build

5. Macrophage - part of immune system which EATS bacteria
Forgetful Chameleons Ordinarily Hate Monkeys
Epithelial Tissue
Covers surfaces or lines cavities
epi - above/on
What is Connective Tissue
1. The most abundant tissue in the body.

2. Surrounded by ECM, or extracellular matrix
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
1. Protection
a. from friction, infection, or chemicals

2. Absorption - in digestion, gas exchange in lungs, radiation in skin

3. Filtration - two different ways

4. Sensory Reception - Smell, Vision, Hearing, Taste, Touch
Poor Alexis Forgot Slinky
Two Kinds of Filtration in Epithelial Tissue
1. Excretion: for Waste by kidneys, liver, sweat (which is also secretion)

2. Secretion: for Use as in milk, hormones, sweat (also excreted)
Location of Epithelial
1. Skin: superficial layer

2. Mucous: superficial layer of OPEN CAVITIES (no cutting required)

3. Serous: superficial layer of CLOSED CAVITIES. (must CUT to gain access to serous)
Suck My Sausage
Characteristics of Epithelial
1. Avascular (no blood vessels, since it is a tissue, not an organ)

2. Highly Mitotic (divides ALOT)

3. Layered (two types)

4. Cell Shape (3 types)
Ally Has a Lovely Clit
Layers of Epithelial Tissue
Simple (single layer)

Stratified (more than one layer)
Cell Shape of Epithelial
Squamous (means scale-shaped like a fish scale) Flat

Cuboidal - a CUBE shape DUH

Columnar - a three dimensional column shape
Epithelial tissue is depends on _______________...?
Connective Tissue for

1. physical support &
2. nutrient supply
Two types of glands, since epithelial tissue is glandular
1. Exocrine glands

2. Endocrine Glands
Innie and Outie
Exocrine Glands have ____________, and secrete _______, _________, ___________, & saliva.
ducts, mucous, sweat, oil
Glands which are both types (endocrine & exocrine)


Sweat Glands
Endocrine glands do NOT have ___________, and secrete (exocytosis) ____________ directly into the __________ and ___________ ________.
ducts, hormones, blood, intercellular space.
3 types of Muscle Tissue
1. Skeletal: Powerful

2. Smooth: Can Stretch..........

3. Cardiac: Unlimited endurance, and very strong. It CANNOT stop.
4 Types of Tissue



These are the simplest organs:
Epithelium + Connective
Functions of Mucous
1. Protection and Lubrication

2. Lines open cavities

3. Must cross to be INSIDE the body
Functions of Serous
1. Lines closed cavities

2. Very slick (low friction)
Roots to name Serosa:

Combine a & b, with i-iii
a. Parietal: on wall
b. Visceral: on gut/organ

i. Pericardium: around heart
ii. Pleura: around lungs
iii. Peritoneum: abdominopelvic cavity
Integument means:
Skin, which is an epithelial tissue
5 Functions of Skin:
1. Sensation

2. Excretion & Secretion

3. Temperature regulation in the Body

4. Vitamin D synthesis

5. Protection
How does skin protect the body?
Injury (mechanical, chemical)

Infection (bacterial, viral, fungal...)


UV radiation
Disease from lack of sunlight/vitamin D
Required to make Vitamin D in the body
don't let the sun fall down on me
3 Cell Types in Epidermis:


Dendritic Cells (macrophage)
Keratinocytes are stratified, rich in ___________, and found in __________, __________, & ____________.
keratin, hair, nails, skin.
These cells die and form the surface of the epiderimis:
These cells give _____________ to keratinocytes for UV protection.
Melanin; Melanocytes
These epithelial cells, aka __________, serve as the skins immune system:
macrophage; Dendritic cells
The second layer of the integument.
Six characteristics of the dermis:
1. Dense connective tissue

2. Blood vessels

3. Nerve fibers

4. Sweat glands

5. Hair follicles

6. Site of fingerprints
_________ is responsible for color in the dermis, and ___________ in the epidermis.
Blood, melanin
Occurs due to lack of oxygen
This is not "skin" by definition, but is a layer deep to the dermis.
A fatty connective tissue below the dermis which serves as _________ ________, and __________ ___________.
heat insulation, shock absorption.
4 Accessory Organs in the skin:
1. Sweat glands
a. located in dermal layer
b. cooling and release of phermones
c. SNS control
d. Mammary glands (modified sweat glands)

2. Oil glands - aka Sebaceous glands
a. softens hair
b. antibacterial

3. Hair
a. sensory
b. heat retention
c. made of keratin (like epidermis and nails)

4. Nails
a. Protection
b. Made of Keratin (like epidermis and nails)
Disorders of the Skin
Melanoma - Cancerous melanocytes which start producing excess melanin

Types of Burns
1. First degree: just epidermis damaged; heals in one week, no scar

2. Second degree: Epidermis and dermis damaged w/blisters; heals in four weeks, possible scarring.

3. Third degree: Epidermis, dermis, & hypodermis are damaged. Sometimes involves muscle and bone. SKIN GRAFTING is often required.
Outside living layer of bone
Layers of periosteum:
Fibrous: protective muscle anchor

Osteogenic: bone making layer. Contains osteoblasts & osteoclasts.
Inner living layer of bone which only has one layer of its own.
Endosteum, which contains an osteogenic layer.
Former osteoblast which was over crowded, and its function:
Osteocyte, which is a STRESS DETECTOR in bone.
Makes up the ECM in bone
Osteoid, which is made of collagen(a support molecule in connective tissue) and other organic filler material, and made by osteoblasts.
This has an appetite for Calcium (Ca 2+)...and a glass of water
Calcium (Ca2+) is needed in the ratio of ________________ of blood.
When Ca2+ levels _________ in the blood, the __________ gland makes hormones to reduce levels.
increase, thyroid
Gland in charge of metabolism
This gland helps to increase Ca 2+ levels in the blood.
a para-thyroids makes for more calcium
__________ break down bone when Ca2+ levels are low, allowing _________ to reabsorb calcium.
osteoclasts, kidneys
Cartilage is _____________, has no ______________, and has an outer covering called the _______________.
avascular, nerves, perichondrium.
Hyaline is a _________ cartilage found on the nose, made with smooth, fine ____________, and covers articular surfaces.
flexible, collagen
_____________ is cartilage found on the ears, made with collagen and of course elastic fibers.
It takes the strong __________________ to support the knees and ________________.
fibrocartilage, intervertebral disks
________ is the first step to repairing bone, which immobilizes the bone.
Hematoma - it brings about swelling
A _________ callus forms after the hematoma, from ______________. New __________ vessels also invade, called _____________.
Cartilage, chondroblasts. blood, angiogenesis.
After a cartilage callus forms, a bony callus forms from ______________.
____________ remodel bones after the osteoblasts form bony callus in a broken bone.
low estrogen, osteoblasts slow production of bone, brittle bone remains
Cancer of the bone marrow is called _____________. Produces bad blood in uncontrollable amounts
_______sarcoma is cancer of the bone where _______blasts make large amounts of brittle, bad bone.
Hypo________ is low blood calcium resulting in a dangerous progression of symptoms:
hypocalcemia, tremors, tetany (muscles lockup), suffocation