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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
types of tissue
connective, epithelium, connective, muscular
"inter”
“extra"
“intra"
inter”=between, “extra”=between, and “intra”=within
Epithelial Tissue - 2 types
1. Membranous epithelium
• Forms outer layer of skin, lines body cavities, lines tubes and ducts, covers visceral organs
• Always has one free surface exposed to a body cavity or a lumen (hollow portion of a tube) or surface of skin

• 2. Glandular epithelium:
• Forms secretory portions of glands
Functions of Epithelium
Protection (epidermis)
Absorption (intestines)
Secretion ((intestines)
Ion transport (moving ions across interface)
Filtration (kidneys)
Forms slippery surfaces (serosa)
Special Characteristics of Epithelia
•Cellularity – very little extracellular material
•Specialized contacts – forms specialized cell junctions
•Polarity – free upper (apical) surface and a lower (basal) surface with differing cell regions
*Supported by connective tissue
•Basement membrane present – basal lamina + layer of reticular fibers
•Avascular but innervated
Regeneration –significance?
Tissue repair begins during inflammation and may involve tissue regeneration - replacement as opposed to fibrosis- scar tissue
Classifications of Epithelia
First name of tissue indicates number of cell layers
Last name of tissue describes shape of cells
Simple vs Stratified
Simple – one layer of cells

Stratified – more than one layer of cells
Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar
Squamous – cells wider than tall (plate-like)
Cuboidal – cells are as wide as tall, like cubes
Columnar – cells are taller than they are wide, like columns
Endothelium
(“inner” covering) – slick lining of hollow circulatory organs: the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
Mesothelium
(“middle” covering)
•Lines peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities
• Covers visceral organs of those cavities
Exocrine Glands
Mucus-secreting glands
Sweat and oil glands
Salivary glands
Liver and pancreas
Endocrine Glands
Ductless glands
Secrete substances directly into bloodstream
Produce molecules called hormones
Unicellular Exocrine Glands
(The Goblet Cell)
Goblet cells produce mucin
Mucin + water  mucus
Protects and lubricates many internal body surfaces
Multicellular Exocrine Glands
Have two basic parts
Epithelium-walled duct
Secretory unit
Classified by structure of duct
Simple
Compound

Categorized by secretory unit
Tubular
Alveolar
Tubuloalveolar
Cell Junctions
hold epithelial cells together - lateral surface features
Tight junctions
close off intercellular space
“sealing”
Found at apical region of most epithelial types
Some proteins in plasma membrane of adjacent cells are fused
Prevent molecules from passing between cells of epithelial tissue
Adherens junctions
anchoring junction
With tight junctions
Desmosomes
two disc-like plaques connected across intercellular space
Function is “binding”
Plaques of adjoining cells
Gap junctions
passageway between two adjacent cells
Function is communication
Let small molecules move directly between neighboring cells
basal lamina
basal epithelial surface: Epithelial cells lie on a protein sheet called the basal lamina. This acts as a filter and a scaffolding on which regenerating epithelial cells can grow.
basement membrane
basal lamina, plus some underlying reticular fibers, form the thicker basement membrane.
Apical surface features pf epithelium
Cilia – whip-like - carry sperm & mucous
Microvilli – finger-like stiff knobs resit abrasion
small intestine & kidney
Classes of connective tissue
connective tissue proper (loose and dense), cartilage, bone, and blood.
All come from mesenchyme
connective tissue proper
Fibroblast
Loose conn tissue - Areolar, Adipose, Reticular

Dense - regular, Irregular & elastic
Cartilage
Chondroblast
Hyline, fibro and elastic
Bone (connective tissue)
Osteoblast

compact & spongy
Blood
Macrophages
blood cell
Loose areolar connective tissue
a prototype connective tissue against which the other types are compared. It surrounds capillaries and underlies most epithelia. Its main functions are to (1) support and bind other tissues with its fibers (collagen, reticular, elastic), (2) hold tissue fluid in its jelly-like ground substance, (3) fight infection with its many blood-derived defense cells (macrophages, plasma cells, neutrophils, etc.), and (4) store nutrients in fat cells.
fibroblast
fibroblast, the most abundant cell type in connective tissue proper, produces both the fibers and the ground substance of the extracellular matrix. The function of collagen fibers is to resist tension placed on the tissue.
Dermis vs epidermis
Dermis - Layer of skin deep to the epidermis; composed of dense irregular tissue

Epidermis - Superficial layer of the skin; composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Perichondrium

Periosteum
Perichondrium -Fibrous, connective-tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures.

Double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone.
Aponeurosis
Aponeurosis
Fibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves.
Fascia
Layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating muscles.
Mucous membranes
Membranes that form the linings of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts).
Skin
An organ system consisting of the epidermis and the dermis. Unlike other epithelial membranes, it is exposed to the air and is a dry membrane.
Muscle Tissue
Skeletal muscle tissue
Cardiac muscle tissue
Smooth muscle tissue
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Branching cells, striated
Generally uninucleate
Cells interdigitate at intercalated discs

Contracts to propel blood into circulatory system

Occurs in walls of heart
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Long, cylindrical cells
Multinucleate
Obvious striations

Voluntary movement
Manipulation of environment
Facial expression

Skeletal muscles attached to bones (occasionally to skin and each other via aponeuroses)
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei
Arranged closely to form sheets
No striations

Propels substances along internal passageways
Involuntary control
Location
Mostly walls of hollow organs
Nervous Tissue
Nervous tissue, the main tissue of the nervous system, is composed of neurons and supporting cells - neuroglial cells
2. Neurons are branching cells that receive and transmit electrical impulses. Nervous tissue regulates body functions.