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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List three procoagulant complexes in the coagulation pathway
Two xases

Xa/Va/PL - ptothrombinase
Which system is in place to inhibit the coagulation cascade and prevent formation of the pathological thrombus?
Protein C and cofactor protein S - inactivate VIIIa and Va
Antithrombin III - inactivate IIa and Xa
Both prevent thrombus formation in the venous system
What markers can be used to detect hypecoagulable states?
Fibrinopeptide A
Fibrinopeptide B
D-D dimers
The two mahor plasminogen activators are:
Tissue plasminogen activator TPA and
Urokinase Plasminogen activator uPA
Inhibitors of plasminogen activation:
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -I (PAI-I)
Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI)
Virchow's triad of thrombotic disorders:
Blood Stasis
Blood abnormality
Blood vessel wall abnormality
Factors that suggest spontaneous thrombosis in adults:
Major surgery
Pregnancy & post-partum
oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy
Myeloproliferative disorders
Advancing age
Factors that suggest need for laboratory evaluation of inherited prothrombotic disorder
Family hx
Age <40
Arterial thrombus
Elevated PTT
More than one thrombus
Increased tendency to form clots either in veins or arteries. A complex trait - a polygenic disorder
Thrombosis in children:six major issues
1. DVT/PE treatment: LMWH
2. catheter-related (PICU, NICU, CA, TPN)
3. L-asp in leukemia
4. anti-phospholipid antibodies
5. cardiovascular, especially CHD
6. congenital prothrombotic disorders
Difference between arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis
Arterial thrombosis is due to pathology of platelets whereas venous is due to pathology of coagulation and anticoagulation factors
Difference btw primary and secondary thrombocytosis seen in arterial thrombosis:
Primary thrombocytosis, as occurs in the myeloproliferative syndromes, has been implicated in thrombosis - many more platelets presennt.
Secondary thrombocytosis occurs in malignancies, post-splenectomy, iron deficiency and sepsis.
Three components required for normal hematopoiesis:
Multipotential hematopoietic stem cells (SEEDS)
Stromal cells & ECM (SOIL)
Growth Factors (Manure).
Where does hematopoiesis take place:
By third week of embryogenesis
At the end of the first month of gestation
During embryonic life
When does the bone marrow become the main site of hematopoiesis
By third week of embryogenesis - yolk sac
At the end of the first month of gestation - liver
During embryonic life - spleen
When does the bone marrow become the main site of hematopoiesis - at the fourth month of gestation
As bone grows, hematopoiesis shifts from ________ to ______
From long bones to axial skeleton
As bone grows, hematopoiesis shifts from ________ to ______
From long bones to axial skeleton
What are the characteristics of a blast cell?
Blue cystoplasm
Bloated nuclueas
Presence of one or more nucleoli
A blast cell is more concenred with dividing than with its own maturation
1 - Myeloblast - Big, blue n bloated
2 - Promyelocyte - smaller nucleus
3 - myelocyte - note clumping of chromatin
4 - metamyelocyte - indentation of nuclues and mature cytoplasm
5 - band neutrophil
6 - segmented neutrophil
Name the cells at the different stages of differentiation of this granulocytes
Name the growth factors that are required by the following lineages:
Myeloid series
Granulocytic lineage
Monocytic lineage
Eythroid proliferation
Myeloid series - GM-CSF
Granulocytic lineage : G-CSF
Monocytic lineage: M-CSF
Eythroid proliferation: EPO
Megakaryocytes: TPO
What is the diameter of mature eyrthrocytes?
Size of erythrocytes compared to that of lymphocytes
What is the diameter of mature eyrthrocytes? 7um
Size of erythrocytes compared to that of lymphocytes - eyrthocytes are smaller than the nucleus of a lymphocyte
What characteristics make the eyrthrocytes deformable?
Lipid bilayer memberane and underlying cytoskeleton (consisting of spectrin, actin, ankyrin and band 4.2).
Shift curve to the rise, increase release of oxygen at the tissue level
What is the effect of acidic conditions and increased levels of 2,3-DPG have on oxygen release at the tissue level?
List the three normal types of hemoglobin that exist
Hg alpha2 beta2 - adults
alpha2 gamma2 - fetus (1% adults)
alpha2 delta2 - 2-3% adults
Granulocytes - 50 -65% of circulating WBC's
Involved in inflammatory rxns, are phagocytic, contain bacterial killing enzymes
Half life - 12hrs
Have 3-4 lobes normally
Name the most abundant leukocytes found circulating in blood
What is their main function?

Ctyotoxic lymphocytes ad=nd NK cells - 5 % of lymphocytes with large cytoplasm with granules
These are the second most abundant WBS's in adults and most abundant in children who are developing an immune system.
The lymphocyte that contains cytoplasmic grnaules make up 5% of this gp of cells and correspond to:
Difference between basophils and mast cells?
Mast cells are found in tissue whereas basophils circulate ib blood. Their granules both contain histamine
What is contained in the granules of eosenophils?
Major basic protein
What is the lifespan of a platelet?
7-12 days
List the lab tests done to assess blood cells
Stained blood smear - Wright-Giemsa
Define the following terms:
Define the following terms:
Anisocytosis - variations in red blood cell size
Poikilocytosis - variation in red cell shape - sickle cell, target cells, spherocytes
Normocytic - description related to MCV
Polychromasia - increased reticulocyte count