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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a thrombocytopenia?
decreased platelet count
what is a thrombocythemia?
an increased platelet count
what is a thrombocytopathy?
abnormal platelet function - they're defective.
What are some symptoms of platelet abnormalities and bleeding tendencies?
-Epistxis/GI bleeds/menorrhagia
-Bleed after surgery, cerebral
What are the 4 types of thrombocytopenia?
1. Decreased plt production
2. Altered plt distribution
3. Ineffective production
4. Increased destruction
What is the most common reason for a thrombocytopenia?
Increased platelet destruction, usually due to an autoimmune disorder.
What causes decreased platelets?
Decreased megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.
What are 2 reasons for decr. megakaryos in the bmarrow?
-Marrow aplasia
-Marrow infiltration
-when in doubt say drugs!
What are 5 spcf reasons you can give for dcr. plt production?
1. Viral infections
2. MDS
3. PNH
4. May-Hegglin Anomaly
5. Drug/toxin induced.
what makes platelet distribution altered?
Spleen sequestrating the platelets, which occurs in hypersplenism.
What 2 diseases is spleen sequestration seen?
-Liver disease
-Portal hypertension
What are 3 causes of ineffective thrombopoeisis?
1. Defective formation
2. Abnormal release to circultn
3. Destruction intramedullary
What anemia is intramedullary destruction of plts seen in?
Vit B12/folate deficiency.
What are the 2 major categories of increased destruction plts?

What are 4 types of immune thrombocytopenia?
1. Autoimmune
2. Alloimmune
3. Drug-related
4. Neonatal infection.
For thrombocytopenia, what is: -Primary autoimmune
-2ndary autoimmune
Primary = ITP = idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura.

2ndary = caused by infections, lupus, etc.
What are 2 types of ITP?
In what patients?
-Acute - children
-Chronic - adults, mostly female
What ususally causes ITP?
-Acute from viral illness

-Chronic from Ab-coated platelets that spleeen destroys
What is the treatment for each ITP?
-Acute/kids is self-limiting

-Chronic, use Cortisol
What are symptoms of each ITP?
-Acute: purpura, ecchymoess, petechiae, mucosal bleeds

-Chronic: insidious onset
What are some causes of 2ndary ITP?
Infections, lupus, refractory anemia, cancer, drugs
What 4 causes of alloimmmune thrombocytopenias?
-Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia - mom immunizes fetus.
-After transfusion
-make Ab to drug
-Heparin-induced (IgG)
What are the 3 main categories of non-immune thrombocytopenia?
What are the 3 types of Microangiopathic?
What is TTP? In Who?
Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura - young women
What IS DIC?
Dissemin. Intravasc Coagulopathy
-Simultaneous activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis.
What types of infections induce thrombocytopenia?
Fungal, protozoan, bacterial.
what is pseudothrombocytopenia?
-Artifact caused by EDTA causing platelet clumps from improper collection.
Enzyme defect and accumulated product in Gaucher's disease:
Enzyme defect and accumulated product in Neimann-Pick:
Enzyme defect and accumulated product in sea-blue histiocytosis:
Enzyme defect and accumulated product in Tay-Sach's
-Hexosanimidase A
-Gangliosidase GM2
Enzyme defect/accumlated product in Mucopolysaccharidosis:
Can't break it down