Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does ecoli interact with the cell?
uses its own receptor to attach to intestines and kidney, we have EPEC already,
What type of toxin is it?
Shiga like verotoxin,
How does PCR work?
multiply, add primer, DNA
What is type III secretions?
Injects Tir and that acts as a receptor for intimin which on the bacterial cells and make the pedastal, they also mess up the host cell metabolism
What do the A and B subunits do?
B subunit binds and A subunit enters and a subunit causes the bloody diarhhea
How does Hemogluttinin work?
virus attachs and ends up inside the endosome which is acidic in nature and causes the release of stuff
What is the difference between positive and negative stranded bacteria?
Already to be translated if positive, if negative is not a template and needs reverse transcriptase
Whhy is it bad to take people away from the soil?
because it breaks down innate immunity to natural microbial contacts
What happens when we are too clean?
We lose contact immunity and things like asthma and eczema go up
What causes allergies?
An innappropriate respon response of T-cells to common antigens
What about the soil helps with immunity?
Natural exposure to microbes allows T cells to develop recognition to lipoplysaccharides of gram -, exposure to mcrobes alllows T cells to recognize teichoic acids of gram +, peptidoglycans in both, B-glucans in fungal walls
What is the asphalt hypothesis?
more asphalty, less tolerance
Why can low incidence of disease in urban environments be associated
tremendous investment in public health
Why have we made so many advances with disease?
major advances in sanition, healthcare, and drug discovery
What is happening in spite of our progress?
Many diseases are reemerging
What is a clade?
A group of genotypes that all come from a common ancestor
Where are diseases often found?
along roads, the followed diarrhea and found it loved roads
When were cholera outbreaks? What brought it back?
India/British Imperialism brought it back
outbreaks in 1839, 1881 etc
what did ships bring in?
sea lampreys, milfoil, zebra muscles
How did we spread brid flu?
flocks of chickens, bought meat from hungary where there was an outbreak and yay we get spread from commerce
how do urban areas provide a reservior for vectors?
water pools in tires etc and misquitos can live there
What happens i you don't run into enough of the good bacteria?
you never learn they are the good guys
Why are allergies more prevalent?
people in urban centers never come in contact with the good stuff
Why is corn currently of interest?
ethanol is biofuel which produced from corn, but you need alot of area to grow corn which is already used for other things and so you cannot just switch over
Whaqt is an issue the paralyzed patients?
they have to pee using a cathetar and eventually these become covered with bacteria which can lead to URI which can cause lots of problems, they treat the cathetar with good bacteria first so the bad ones can't colonize
Whats new in the way colds are spread?
don't just need direct contact anymore,half of all colds are caused by rhinoviruses which stick around for longer than we thought, ie the hotel
What happens when a person dies of an unknown
Disease detective at last resort, got new facility, mosty cases remain a mystery, but cases aren't closed forever ie hantavirus
Talk about microbes in amber
found from triassic period, things haven't changed much at all actually, found protozoans, ameboas, bacterias etc
How might Mad cow change?
Can genetically engineer cows that lack prions, can't get mad cow, prion can morph into killer celler, domino effect,
What are antimicrobial food coatings?
foodborne illness is a big problem, agency has made food wrappers from fruits and vegetables that are paper thin and carry the color of the food, found oregano foils fight ecoli best
What do some of our electronic equipment now mimic?
viruses and how they switch on and off
Why are people looking for forbidden DNA?
look for sequences of DNA that doesn't exist, if not reported it may not have been maintained because it might cause the organism to self destruct, potential drug targets, could also act as a molecular bar code
Why are bacteria our cooking friends?
some foods needs microbes, lactic acid bacteria preserve food and may one day be used for long space journeys
Why can't we conclude life on Mars is dead?
we may have killed the life we were looking for, our life is water/salt based, mars may be water/ hydrogen perioxide to help with dryness and freezing, used lots of water which would have drowned, temp may have been too high
How did we know that the flu was related to swine?
We mixed with our antibodies and the clumped and inactivated the swine flu
What happens when you domesticate the duck
you bring the flu to people, ie the rice duck pig issue
How do we predict the flu for next year?
look at viruses from early and late in the flu season as well as the peak and see where its going
What are chicken eggs used for?
You use the eggs to grow the virus and then you inactivate the virus and give it to people as the vaccine.
how many changes neeed to occur in HA to make it non transmittable
two point mutations
THe avain flu prefers what sugary receptor? 1918?
avain prefers alpha 2.3
1918 prefers alpha 2.6
What could we do to the flu to make to not as threatening to humans?
avainize it
Why is avain flu not transmissible in humans
the alpha 2.3 cells are deeper in lungs so virus is not capable of droplet transmission
What Hs are associated with in humans?
H1 and H3
What positions in the 1918 virus decide receptor specificity?
190 and 225
Why do we have issues with social distancing?
we have more single parents etc and can't close schools
how do roads increase malaria?
water pools from construction
how does transportation affect disease?
changes mobility and cicrulation which makes sexually transmitted diseases more prevalent
How do roads affect hygiene and sanitation?
reduce social connectedness wihtin a community which may reduce good hygiene
How does urbanization affect disease?
concentration of susceptible individuals, increased interaction between urban centers, sanitation and hygiene, reserviors for vectors, loss of contact immunity
How do you build urban ecology into model?
change B
What did the ladybug experiment prove?
use two spotted ladybird beetles,give sexual parasite, change population densities, track transmission infect it does increase with urbanization
If migration is important in moving diseases around the world what should we see?
phylogeography, genetic patterns in structure
Where should we see a greater diseases prevalnece?
where human movements are greater ie infections causing diarrhea are much more prevalent where there are roads
What happened with cholera
What was happening in South Asia in 1817: cholera and again in 1827 and again in 1839 and in 1863 and 1881
Cholerais thought to have been introduced to peru in 1991 by Chinese freighter in bilge water
The plague followed well traveled trade routes as well