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148 Cards in this Set

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How should a radiograph be placed on the viewing screen?
The same way every time
How should VD and DV films be placed on the viewing screen?
So right side is to left in both views (VD and DV)
How should lateral views be placed on the viewing screen?
cranial side to the left
What does a R or L marker on a lateral film of the trunk mean?
Animal on right or left side, respectively (right or left lateral recumbancy),so, represents view also
What do R and L markers tell you in DV or VD films?
side of animal
What is the first rule when shooting radiographs of the thorax?
All of the thorax in the film
List 3 differences of the cat thorax compared to the dog.
1. thorax more triangular
2. heart more upright
3. thorax more lucent
How are lateral thoracic films evaluated for rotation?
costochondral junctions and shoulder joints
-same level
How is the VD or DV projection evaluated for rotation?
Sternum and spinal column superimposed
List 4 of 5 things evaluated when reading thoracic films.
1. technical quality
2. all of the thorax in film
3. symmetrical positioning
4. expiratory or inspiratory film
5. structures
What structure is used to tell an expiratory from and inspiratory film?
Position of diaphragm
Once you haved picked a method to evaluate films, what should you do each time you evaluate a film?
Always read in the same manner every time-get a routine
What are the borders of a thoracic radiograph?
Chest wall, thoracic spine, sternum, diaphragm, and any of thoracic limb in film.
For what is the heart evaluated?
Shape, size, position, opacity and changes in silhouette
For what is the mediastinum evaluated?
Shifts, width, abnormal density, or masses
What is the cranial limit of the abdomen?
Diaphragm
Why is the cranial surface of the diaphragm easily visualized
Water density contrasted by adjacent air density of the lungs
What is the junction between the two crura?
Intercrural cleft
What can contrast the abdominal side of the ventral diaphragm and the liver? Why?
Falciform ligament; fat filled
What can contrast the abdominal side of the dorsal diaphragm?
Air in fundus of stomach
What mediastinal structures are normally seen in the lateral view?
trachea, aorta, heart in the pericardium, caudal vena cava
What mediastinal structures can be seen in the VD view?
trachea,heart in the pericardium, caudal vena cava, sternopericardiac ligament, left edge of the descending aorta
Is the esophagus usually visible on radiograph? When is it visible?
No, only if it contains swallowed air or contrast material
What oblique soft tissue opacity in the cranial mediastinum is normally seen in VD or DV views of cats and young dogs?
Sail sign (thymus)
Where are the cranial mediastinal lymph nodes located?
Cranial mediastinum
The pleura of the caudal mediastinum is __________, allowing air or fluid to pass bt. the pleural cavities.
fenestrated
What is the thick dark line in a radiograph of the cranial mediastinum?
Trachea
what is the dark oval over the heart base in a lateral radiograph?
Tracheal bifurcation, "carina"
What term do radiologist use for the tracheal bifurcation?
"Carina"
The trachea normally makes a ______ angle to the vertebral column in a lateral view.
15 degree
What are the 2 continuations of the trachea into the lungs?
Mainstem bronchi or primary bronchi
Do the cranial or caudal bronchi show up better? Why?
Caudal, because of thicker lung (water density) around them
How many divisions does the left bronchus have?
2, 1-cranial lobe, 1- caudal lobe
How many secondary bronchi (lobar) arise from the right bronchus?
4- cranial, middle, caudal and accessory
Which is the most ventral (dependant) of the bronchi?
right middle bronchus
What is seeing air in the bronchi called?
Bronchogram
List the divisions of the left bronchi.
Cranial (to cranial part of cranial lobe), middle (to caudal part of cranial lobe), caudal
What are the normal longitudinal water densities in the lungs?
Pulmonary vessels, not bronchi
What is a lobar bronchus and associated lobar pulmonary artery and vein?
pulmonary triad
What is the normal relative size of the artery and vein of a pulmonary triad?
About the same size
Veins are always ______ and ______ (______) to the arteries of pulmonary triads in the lateral and DV views respectively.
Veins to Arteries- Ventral and Central (medial)
In the DV/VD films, what is the position of the lobar arteries to the caudal lungs?
4 and 8 o'clock positons
What conditions will result in visible lung fissures (lobular pattern)?
Collapsed lungs, pleural fluid and pleural thickenings
Lungs should not be seen on radiographs because they are ________ densities.
Air (black)
The cranial lobe of the left lung is divided into cranial and caudal parts, instead of 2 seperate lung lobes by anatomists, because one ________ __________ supplies air to both parts.
1 lobar(secondary) bronchus
How many left lung lobes are there anatomically and radiographically?
Anatomically-2; radiographically-3;
Why do radiologists speak of 3 left lung lobes?
Look like 3 radiographically
What is the radiologist left medial lung lobe anatomically?
Caudal part of cranial lobe
List the lobes of the right and left lungs radiographically(anatomically).
Rt. Lung: cranial, middle, caudal and accessory(anatomically the same)
Left lung:cranial(cranial part of cranial lobe) middle (caudal part of cranial lobe)and caudal lobe
The cranial lobe of ______ lung is seen in fron of the cranial lobe of the _______ lung on a lateral view as a seperate round air filled structure.
left,right
The pleural cavities are potential, not real, spaces because ________ _______ holds the visceral pleura of the lungs to the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall.
serous tension
What is located in the normal pleura space?
Only a little fluid
What is the cranial extent of the pleural cavity?
Pleural cupula
The pleural cupula normally extending cranially past the ______ ______
First rib
The lungs are basically evaluated by the presence or absence of _______ and ______.
Fluid and air
What is located between the vessels of the lungs?
Interstitium, parenchyma
The 2 sides of the thorax should be compared for difference in ______ in the VD or DV views.
Opacity
Why don't you see the chambers of the heart in survey radiographs?
Heart is muscle,chambers filled with blood (both water densities)
Since you can't see the chambers of the heart in survey radiographs how do you evaluate the heart?
Evaluate the borders or silhouette
What are the lateral radiographic locations of the different compartments of the heart listed below:

Right atria
Right ventricle
Right ventricular outflow tract
Right auricular appendage
upper part of cranial edge
Lower part of cranial edge
high on cranial part of heart
high on cranial part of heart
What are the lateral radiographic locations of the different compartments of the heart listed below:

a. Pulmonary trunk or main pulmonary artery (MPA)
a. Superimposed over high cranial part of heart
b. Cranially to high part of cranial heart
c. junction between cranial vena cava & right atrium
d. Caudal to upper caudal heart
What is a radiographic term for the pulmonary trunk?
Main pulmonary artery (MPA)
What structures are located in the area of the cranial waist of the heart in a lateral projection?
Arch of aorta, right auricular appendage and pulmonary trunk
What will enlargement of arch of the aorta, right auricular appendage or pulmonary trunk cause?
Loss of the cranial cardiac waist
The pulmonary arteries are located over the _______ of the heart.
base
Is the left auricular appendage visualized on a lateral radiograph and why?
No, located in middle of heart (superimposed)
What large vessel comes out of the center of the base of the heart?
aortic arch
What are located at the base of the aorta as it comes out of the ventricle.
Aortic valve and sinuses
When can the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery be visualized in a lateral radiograph?
Air in mediastinum (pneumomediastinum)
Tell if the structures are seen and where they are located in a DV view or VD view.

A.Cranial vena cava
B.Caudal vena cava
C.Atria
D.Auricles
A. Only edge of it; cranial mediastinum
B. Yes; right side, heart diaphragm
C.No; superimposed over heart
D. No unless enlarged, point to left
Tell if the structures are seen and where they are located in a DV view or VD. view.
e.Right atria
f.Right ventricle
g.Pulmonary trunk
h.Left atria
e. no;superimposed over cranial end of right ventricle
f. Yes; cranial half of heart
g. Yes; cranial, left side of heart
h. no; superimposed over caudal heart, just caudal to tracheal bifurcation
Tell if the structures are seen and where they are located in a DV view or VD. view.

i.lft. ventricle
j.Apex
k.Aortic arch
l.descending aorta
m. Phrenicopericardiac ligament
i.Yes; caudal half of heart
j.Yes; pointing to left
k. No; cranial mediastinum
l. Yes; left lateral edge
m. Yes; left margin of caudal mediastinum
On what side of a DV view is the caudal vena cava seen? VD view?
Right,right
Why can't the atria be seen on a VD view?
Summated over the heart
On which side of the DV view will enlarged atria be seen?
Extending to the left
What part of the DV silhouette does the right ventricle make up?
Right side from apex around cranial side to cranial left side
The left atrium is over the ______ heart directly above the left ventricle.
It is located just caudal to the _______ ______.
Caudal,tracheal bifurcation
What is the pulmonary trunk called by radiologists?
Main pulmonary artery (MPA)
What arises on the left cranial side of the heart?
Pulmonary trunk
The left ventricle makes up the _____ half of the _____ silhouette of the heart.
Caudal,left
On what side of the heart is the apex, a radiographic landmark, located?
Left
Why is the aortic arch not visible in the DV view?
Summated over cranial mediastinum and spine
How does the descending aorta appear on a DV view:
A line to left = Left edge of aorta
What makes up the left margin of the caudal mediastinum?
Phrenicopericardial lig.
What is found on the VD view at each time area according to the clock faced analogy.

VD:11-1 o'clock
VD:1-2 o'clock
VD:2-3 o'clock
VD:2-6 o'clock
11-1 Aortic arch (covered by spine so not seen)
1-2 MPA/pulmonary trunk
2-3 Left atrium
2-6 Left ventricle
VD: 5 o'clock
VD: 6-9 o'clock
VD: 9-11 o'clock
Apex
Rt. ventricle
Right atria
What is found on the lateral view at each of the below areas according to the clock faced analogy.

lat:2 & 9 o'clock
lat:11-12 o'clock
lat:1-2 o'clock
lat:2-6 o'clock
Waist of heart
Aortic arch
Left atrium
Left ventricle
lat:5 o'clock
lat:6-9 o'clock
lat:9-11 o'clock
Apex
Rt. ventricle
Rt. atria
How are radiographs of the heart checked for rotation?
Costochondraljunctions and shoulderjoints
When is the heart bigger than normal? When is it smaller than normal?
Big >3 1/2, small<2 1/2
What is the normal amount of sternal contact of the heart?
3 sternebrae
of what does the chest wall consist?
Sternum,ribs,costalcartilages and intercostal muscles
When are the mediastinal lymph nodes visible?
When enlarged (lymphosarcoma, common in cats)
What is air in the mediastinum?
pneumomediastinum
What is moving of the mediastinum to the right or left?
Mediastinal shift
Which is the most common lung lobe site for aspiration pneumonia?

What is the second most common?
Right middle lung lobe(most dependent)

cranial right lung lobe
To which lung lobe will a light, inhaled foreign body (grass awn), which moves by air flow and not gravity, tend to go?
Right caudal lobe- straight shot
What is the common term for bowing of the principle bronchi in VD and DV views?
"cowboy legs"
Left atrial enlargement will do what to the caudal bronchi in a alteral view?
Seperate right and left caudal bronchi by elevating left one
Fluid or air in the pleural space will eliminate the ______.
Negative
What is excess fluid in the pleural space?
Pleural effusions
What is the main radiographic sign of pleural effusion?
Separation of lungs and body wall allowing visualization lung borders and fissure lines
What else will pleural effusion do to a radiograph besides showing borders and fissures of the lungs?
Loss of detail obscuring the heart and diaphragm.
How do radiographic signs relate to lung disease in terms of time?
Lag behind the development and resolution of clinical signs
What are the 4 basic opaque lung patterns?
Interstitial,alveolar, peribronchiolar and vascular
What characterizes each of the opaque lung patterns?
a.interstitial:opaque lungs
b.alveolar:air bronchograms
c.Peribronchiolar:"donuts and tram lines"
d.Vascular:increased,decreased or normal
What is the #1 cause of an interstitial pattern?
Expiratory film (normal)
What is the visualization of the air in bronchi in an alveolar pattern called?
Air bronchogram
Why do the vessels disappear in an alveolar pattern?
Surrounding lung filled with fluid
Why is the air in the bronchi so prominent in an alveolar pattern?
Water replaces air in interstium and contrast air in bronchi
Give 2 signs of a peribronchiolar pattern.
perivascular cuffing
-donuts
-tram lines
What are "donuts"?
Round end on views of bronchi w/perivascular cuffing in peribronchiolar pattern
What are the sagittal sections of bronchi w/ perivascular cuffing called in a peribronchiolar pattern?
"tram lines"
What kind of radiographic vascular patterns are there?
Normal,increased (hypervascular)or decreased (hypovascular)
What should be the first thing that comes to mind when enlarged arteries of the lungs are seen?
Heart worm disease
Large pulmonary veins indicates ________ heart failure causing fluid to back up into the lungs by the pulmonary veins.
Left
What configuration can the vessels in a hypervascular pattern have?
Tortuous
What is fluid in the lungs?
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema results in increased radiographic ______.
Opacity
What is the mechanism of cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
Left heart failure backing up into lungs
How does the right ventricle responds to stresses (pressure or volume)?
Dilates quite readily
What signs are seen on a lateral film of right atrial enlargement?
Elevation of trachea, loss of cranial waist
What is a sign on a DV projection of right atrial enlargement?
Enlargement of 9-11 o'clock area
Right ventricular enlargement is seen as a ________ bulging on the lateral view. This will cause the heart to have more ______ ______.
cranial; sternal contact
On VD view, right ventricular enlargement will bulge to the right.
How is this shape often referred to?
Backwards or reverse "D"
Where does fluid back up into right heart failure?
Abdomen, liver and extremities
Give 2 findings of rt. ventricle enlargement on the DV projection.
Rounded rt. cardiac border
-reversed "D" sign with marked enlargement
-apex more to left
Where are heart worms normally located?
Pulmonary trunk and aa. and rt. ventricle
What clinical condition should you think of if you see tortuous, dilated pulmonary arteries?
Heart worm disease
What will cause tracheal and left mainstem bronchi elevation?
Left atrial enlargement
What is a possible effect on the mainstem bronchi in left atrial enlargement in a VD film?
Spread out ("cowboy legs")
List 3 findings of lft. atrial enlargement in the lateral projection
Elevated trachea and carina
-separation of mainstem bronchi (left dorsal to right)
-enlarged atrium (projects caudaodorsally)
List 3 findings of lft. atrial enlargement in the DV projection.
Auricle projects at 2-3 o'clock position
-increased opacity of lft. atrium)centrally over the heart)
-"cowboy legs"
List 3 findings in lft. ventricle enlargement on a lateral projection.
Loss of caudal waist
-caudal bulging to caudodorsal border of heart
-elevated trachea
List 2 findings in lft. ventricle enlargement on a DV projection.
Rounding of left ventricle border (3-5 o'clock)
-apex shifted to right sometimes
What does elevation of the trachea indicate?
Enlargement of rt. or lft. atria, or right or left ventricle
What does loss of caudal cardiac waist indicate?
Lft. ventricular or left atrial enlargement
What does bowing out of the caudal border indicate?
Lft. ventricle enlargement
What does a reverse (backwards) "D" indicate on the DV view?
Rt. ventricle enlargement
What do "cowboy legs" indicate?
Left atrial enlargement or severe lymphadenopathy
What is an opened ductus arteriosus bt. the aorta and the pulmonary trunk called?
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
What is the early treatment of a PDA?
Tie off the ductus arteriosus
Where does the ductus arteriosus join the aorta in relationship to the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian arteries?
Past them
What is pulmonic stenosis?
constriction of the pulmonary
artery outflow tract
What type of murmur will pulmonary stenosis give? why?
Systolic; pumping through constriction
Where is a pulmonic stenotic murmur best heard?
Cranial left side (PAM 345)
How does the pulmonary trunk (MPA)appear in pulmonic stenosis?
Bulges
What type of lung pattern would you expect to see in pulmonic stenosis?
normal to hypovascular