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275 Cards in this Set

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What are the ribs?
are curved flat bones that form most of the thoracic cage
NAME
these are curved flat bones that form most of the thoracic cage
ribs
Each rib contains a (1)containing a (2)
(1)spongy interior (2)bone marrow
NAME
each of these contains a spongy interior containing a bone marrow
rib
What are (3) types of ribs?
(1)true ribs (2)false (3)floating
NAME
there are three types of these: true, false, and floating
ribs
True ribs are also called (1)
vertebrocostal
(1)ribs are also called the vertoebrocostal ribs
true
false ribs are alos called the (1)
vertebrochondral
(1)are also called the vertebrochondral ribs
false
floating ribs are also called (1)
free
(1)ribs are also called free ribs
floating
What are the true ribs?
attach directly to the sternum through their own cartilages
NAME
these attach directly to the sternum through their own cartilages
true ribs
Where are the true ribs located?
1st through the 7th ribs
NAME
these are the 1st through 7th ribs
true ribs
WHat are the false ribs?
have cartilages that are joined to the cartilage of the ribs superior and also connect w the sternum indirectly
NAME
these ribs have cartilage are joined to the cartilage of the ribs superiorly and also connect w the sternum indirectly
false ribs
Where are the false ribs located?
8th to 10th ribs
NAME
these are located 8th to 10th ribs
false ribs
What are floating ribs?
have rudimentary cartilages that do not connect even directly w the sternum instead they end in the posterior andominal musculature
NAME
these have rudimentary cartilages that do not connect even directly w the sternum instead they end in the posterior andominal musculature
floating ribs
Wher are the floating ribs located?
11th to 12th ribs but sometimes the 10th rib
NAME
these include the 11th to 12th ribs but sometimes the 10th rib
floating ribs
What are typical ribs like? (4)
they have a (1)head (2)neck (3)tubercle (4)body
NAME
these have a head, neck, tubercle, and body
typical ribs
What are the typical ribs?
3rd through 9th
NAME
these are the 3rd through 9th ribs
typical ribs
What are the actually atypical ribs? (5)
(1)1st (2)2nd (3)10th (4)11th (5)12th
NAME
these ribs include the 1st, 2nd, 10th, 11th, and 12th ribs
atypical ribs
WHat is the 1st rib like?
it is the broadest, shortest, and mostly sharply curved of the seven true ribs
NAME
this is the broadest, shortest, and mostly sharply curved of the 7 true ribs
1st ribs
What is the 2nd rib like?
is thinner and less curved and much longer than the 1st (2)it has 2 facets on its head for articulartion w the bodies of T1 and T2
NAME
this is hte thinner and less curved and much longer than the 1st and it has 2 facets on its head for articulation w the bodies of T1 and T2
2nd rib
What are the 10th, 11th and 12thr ribs like?
are like the 1st ribs but only have one facet for their heads
NAME
these ribs are like the 1st ribs but only have one facet for their heads
10th, 11th, and 12th ribs
What are the 11th and 12th ribs like?
they are short and have no necks or tubercules
nAME
these are short and have no necks or tubercules
11th and 12th ribs
What are the costal cartilages?
they prolong the ribs anteriorly and contribute to the elasticity of the thoracic wall
NAME
these prolong the ribs anteriorly and contribute to the elasticity of the thoarcic wall
costal cartilages
WHat is the intercostal space?
separates the ribs and thier costal cartilages from one another
NAME
these separates the ribs and their costal cartilages from one another
intercostal space
What is the subcostal space?
is below the 12th rib and the anterior ramus of the spinal nerve
NAME
this is below the 12th rib and the anterior ramus of the spinal nerve
subcostal space
What are the characteristic features of the thoracic vertebrae?
(1)bilateral costal facets for articulation w the heads of the ribs (2)costal facets on their tranverse processes for articulation w the tubercles of the ribs (3)long inferiorly slanting spinous processes
NAME
these vertebrae contain bilateral costal facets on their bodies for articulation w the heads of the ribs, costal facets on their tranverse processes for articulation w the ribs, and long inferiorly slanting spinous processes
thoracic
What is the weakest part of the rib?
anterior to its angle
Rib fracture commonly result from (1) or (2)
direct blows or indirectly from crushing injuries
NAME
there are normally fractured bc of a direct blow or indirectly from crushing injuries
rib fractures
What part of the ribs are commonly fractured?
the middle ribs
the (1)ribs are commonly fractured
middle
What are the (3)parts of the sternum?
(1)Manubrium (2)body (3)xiphoid process
NAME
these have three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
sternum
What is the manubrium?
is the superior part of the strenum located btwn T3/T4
NAME
this is the superior part of the sternum
manubrium
Where is the Manubrium located?
T3/T4
Where is the body of the sternum located?
T5/T9
NAME
this part of the sternum is located btwn T5/T9
body
Where is the xiphoid process located?
T10
NAME
this is located at T10
xiphoid process
Where is the angle of Louis located?
T4/T5
NAME
this is located at T4/T5
angle of Louis
What is the angle of Louis?
is a projecting sternal angle that is formed by the manubrium and the body of the sternum
NAME
this is a projecting sternal angle that is formed by the manubrium and the body of the sternum
angle of Louis
What is the xiphoid process?
is the smallest most variable part of the sternum that is inferiorly located at T10
NAME
this is smallest most variable part of the sternum that is inferiorly located at T10
xiphoid processs
NAME
this is more cartilaginous in young people but more or less ossified in adults older than 40 yrs old
xiphoid process
T or F
sternal fracture are common
false
Are sternal fractures common
no
What can cause a sternal fracture?
can occur during a traumatic compression of the thoracic wall such as during an automobile accident when the driver's chest is driven into the steering wheel
NAME
this can can occur duringa traumatic compression of the thoracic wall such as during an automobile accident when the drivers chest is driven into the steering wheel
sternal fracture
What is median sternotomy?
is a surgical operation that splits the sternum in the median plane and allows doctors acess to the thoracic cavitiy--(aka the heart and main vessels)
NAME
this is a surgical operation that splits the sternum in the median plane and allows doctors acess to the thoracic cavitiy--(aka the heart and main vessels)
median sternotomy
What is sternal biopsies?
a procedure commonly used to obtain speciemens of the bone marrow for transplanation and for detection of mestatic cancer
NAME
this is a procedure commonly used to obtain speciemens of the bone marrow for transplanation and for detection of mestatic cancer
bone marrow needle biopsy
Describe the movements of the thoracic wall
movements are frequent during respiration...however, the range of the inviduals joints is small
Any distrubance that reduces the mobility of the thoracic joints interferes w (1)
respiration
Any distrubance that reduces the mobility of the thoracic joints interferes w (1)
respiration
What are the joints of the thoracic wall? (8)
(1)intervertebral (2)costovertebral (3)sternocostal (4)sternoclavicular (5)costochondral (6)interchondral (7)manubiosternal (8)xiphisternal
What are the joints of the thoracic wall? (8)
(1)intervertebral (2)costovertebral (3)sternocostal (4)sternoclavicular (5)costochondral (6)interchondral (7)manubiosternal (8)xiphisternal
What are the joints of the thoracic wall? (8)
(1)intervertebral (2)costovertebral (3)sternocostal (4)sternoclavicular (5)costochondral (6)interchondral (7)manubiosternal (8)xiphisternal
NAME
there 8 of these: intervertebral, costovertebral, sternocostal, sternoclavicular, costochondral, interchondral, manubiosternal, and the xiphisternal
joints of the thoracic wall
What kind of joints are the joints of the thoracic wall?
see chart
What kind of joints are the joints of the thoracic wall?
see chart
What kind of joints are the joints of the thoracic wall?
see chart
Which joints of the thoracic wall are cartilaginous? (5)
(1)interveretbral (2)sternoclavicular (3)costochondral (4)manubiosternal (5)xiphisternal
the intervererbal, sternoclavicular, costochondral, manubiosternal, and the xiphisternal are (1)joints
cartiliaginous
the costovertebral, sternocostal, and the interchondral are (1)
synovial
WHat kind of joints of the thoracic wall are synovial?(3)
(1)costovertebral (2)sternocostal (3)interchondral
T or F
both males and females have breasts
true
T or F
males have functionless mammary glands consisting of only a few small ducts or cords
true
NAME
these are modified sweat glands w no speacial capusle or sheath
true
What gives breasts their vol and contour?
the subcutaneous fat
The subcutaneous fat gives breasts their (1)
vol and contour
During pregrancy, the mammary glands (1) and (2)
enlarges (2)new glandular tissue forms
What determines the size and shape of the breasts? (3)
(1)genetics (2)race (3)dietary factors
nAME
this is determined by genetics, race, and dietary factors
she size and shape of breasts
Where are the breasts located?
in the pectoral fasica
NAME
two thirds of this rests in the pectoral fascia
the breasts
(1)of the breasts lie in the pectoral fascia
2/3
2/3 of the breasts lie in the (1)
pectoral fascia
What is the retromammary space?
a space btwn the breast and the deep pectoral fasica that contains a small amount of fat
NAME
this is a space btwn the breast and the deep pectoral fascia that contains a small amount of fat
retromammary gland
Draw a chart of how lymph is drained from the breast
see chart
Draw a chart of how lymph is drained from the breast
see chart
Draw a chart of how lymph is drained from the breast
see chart
Draw a chart of the aterial supply of blood to the breast
see chart
Draw a chart of the aterial supply of blood to the breast
see chart
Draw a chart of the aterial supply of blood to the breast
see chart
The suspensory ligaments are also called the (1)
ligaments of Cooper
the (1)are also called the ligaments of Cooper
suspensory ligaments
What are suspensory ligaments?
help to support the mammary gland lobules
nAME
these ligaments help to support the mammary gland lobules
suspensory ligaments
What is the nipple?
is the greatest priminence of the breast
NAME
this is the greatest primence of the breast
nipple
NAME
this is surrounded by the areola
nipple
Describe the nipple
it is surrounded by areola
WHat is the areola?
is circular pigmented area that surrounds the nipple
NAME
this is a circular pigmented area that surrounds the nipple
areola
The breast contains (1)lobules of glandular tissue
15-20
NAME
this contains 15-20 lobules of glandular tissue
breast
How many lobules of glandular tissue does the breat have?1
15-20
The breast contains 15-20 (1)
lobules of glandular tissue
What is the lactiferous duct?
drains each lobule and opens independently on the nipple
NAME
this drains each lobule and opens independently on the nipple
lactiferous duct
WHat is the lactiferous sinus?
is a dilated portion of the lactiferous duct of a breast
NAME
this is a dilated portion of the lactiferous duct of a breast
lactiferous sinus
Most lymph is drained from the (1)
axillary lymph node
NAME
most of the lymph in the breast is drained from here
axillary lymph node
Why is the lymphatic drainage of the breast important?
bc the breasts lymph drainage system can spread cancer cells
The breast is divived into (1)
4 quadrants
What is metastasis
is the spread of cancer
nAME
this refers to the spread of cancer cells
metastasis
What is lymphedema?
is excessive fluid in the subcutaenous tissue
NAME
this is excessive fluid in the subcutaenous tissue
lymphedema
What are some signs of breast cancer? (2)
(1)lymphedema (2)peau d' orange sign
NAME
some signs of this are lymphedema and peau d' orange sign
breast cancer
What is peau d' orange sign?
refers to preominent puffy skin btwn dimpled pores that gives the skin an orange-peel appearnace
NAME
this refers to preominent puffy skin btwn dimpled pores that gives the skin an orange-peel appearnace
peau d' orange sign
T or F
Altough it is uncommon, males can get breast cancer
true
What is a mastectomy?
breat exicision
NAME
this is breast exicision
mastectomy
WHat is a simple mastectomy?
is when the breast is removed down to the retromammary space
NAME
this is when the breast is removed down to the retromammary space
simple mastectomy
What is radical mastectomy?
is the removal of the whole breast, pectoral muscles, fat, fascia, and as many lymph nodes as possible
NAME
this is removal of the whole breast, pectoral muscles, fat, fascia, and as many lymph nodes as possible
radical mastectomy
In current pratices a (1)or (2), the only tumor and surrounding tissues are removed
(1)lumpectomy (2)quadrantectomy
In current practices a lumpectomy or quadrantectomy, is when (1)
the only tumor and surrounding tissues are removed
What is the intercostal nerve? (5)
supplies the external intercostal, (2)internal intercostal (3)innermost innercostal (4)tranver thoracic (5)subcostal muscles
NAME
this nerve supplies the external intercostal, internal intercostal, innermost intercostal, trenverse thoracic, and subcostal muscles
intercostal nerve
What is the intercostal muscles do ? (3)
during forced inspiration,(1) it elevates the rib (2)interosseous part depresses the ribs (3)interchondral part elevates the ribs
NAME
during forced inspiration, this mucles elevates the ribs, the interosseous part depresses the ribs, and the interchondral part elevates the ribs
intercoastal muscles
What are different type of intercostal muscles? (3)
(1)external (2)internal (3)innermost
The levator costraum muscle is supplied by the (1)
posterior rami
the (1)muscle of the thoracic wall is supplied by the posterior rami
levator costaraum muscle
What is the 2nd -5th intercostal nerves?
supplies the serratus posterior superior muscle
NAME
this nerve supplies the serratus posterior superior muscle
2nd-5th intercostal nerve
WHat muscles do the the 9th-11th intercostal nerves and T12 subcostal nerve supply?
serratus posterior inferior
What (2)nerves supply the serratus posterior inferior?
(1)9th to 11th intercostal nerve s(2)T12 subcostal nerve
What does the tranverse thoracic subcostal muscle do?
weakly depresses the ribs
NAME
this weakly depresses the ribs
tranverse thoracic subcostal
What does the levator costarum do?
elevates the ribs
What does the serratus posterior superior do?
elevates the ribs
NAME
these (2)muscle elevate the ribs
(1)levator costarum (2)serratus posterior superior
What does the serratus posterior inferior do?
depress the ribs
NAME
this muscle depresses the ribs
serratus posterior inferior
How many T nerves are there?
12
The T nerves divides into (1)and (2)
anterior and posterior rami
NAME
these 12 nerves divide into the anterior and posterior rami
T nerve
the T nerves divide into (1)and (2)
anterior and posterior rami
What is the intercostal nerves?
is the anterior rami of T1-T11
NAME
this nerve consists of the anterior rami of T1-T11
intercostal nerves
WHat is the subcostal nerve?
is the anterior rami of the T12
NAME
this nerve is the anterior rami of the T12
subcostal nerve
What does the posterior rami supply?
the bones,(2)joints (3)deep back muscles (4)skin of the back in the thoracic region
NAME
this nerve supplies the bones, joints, deep back muscles, and the skin of the back in the thoracic region
posterior rami
What are (3)compartments of the thoracic cavity?
(1)2 pulmonary cavities (2)mediastinum
NAME
this has 3 compartments: 2 lateral pulmonary cavities and one central compartment
thoracic cavity
What is the mediastinum?
contains the heart, thoracic parts of the great vessels (3)thoracic part of the trachea (4)espohagus (5)thymus and other structures
NAME
this contains the heart, thoracic parts of the great vessels, thoracic part of the trachea, espohogus, thymus, and other structures
mediastinum
What are the pulmonary cavities?
contain the lungs and the pleurae
NAME
this contains the lungs and pleurae
pulmonary cavities
Describe each lung
each lung is invested by and enclosed in 2 membranes called visceral and parietal pleura
NAME
each of these is invested by and enclosed in 2 membranes called visceral and parietal pleura
lungs
Each lung is invested and enclosed in 2 membranes called (1)and (2)
visceral and parietal pleura
WHat are (2)kinds of pleura?
(1)visceral pleura (2)parietal pleura
NAME
there are (2)kinds of this membrane--visceral and parietal
pleura
T or F
the visceral pleura can be dissected from the lungs
False
can the visceral pleura be dissected from the lungs?
no
What is visceral pleura?
covers the lungs and is adherent to all its surfaces
NAME
this covers the lungs and its adherent to all it surfaces
visceral pleura
What is the parietal pleura?
lines the pulmonary cavities, adhering to the thoracic wall, the mediastinum, and the diaphragm
NAME
this lines the pulmonary cavities, adhering to the thoracic wall, the mediastinum, and the diaphragm
parietal pleura
What is the pleural sleeve?
encloses the root of the lung
NAME
this encloses the root of the lung
pleural sleeve
WHat is the pleural cavity?
space btwn the visceral and the parietal layers of the pleura
NAME
this is the potential space btwn the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
pleural cavity
What does the pleural cavity contain?
contains a capillary layer of serous pleural fluid
NAME
this contains a capillary layer of serous pleural fluid
pleural cavity
The pleural cavity contains a capillary layer of (1)
serous pleural fluid
What does the serous pleural fluid do?
lubricates the pleura surfaces (2)allows the layers of pleura to slide smoothly over each other during respiration (3)its surface tension provides cohesion that keeps the lungs surface in contact w the thoracic wall
NAME
this lubricates the pleura surfaces, allows the layers of the pleura to slide smoothly over each other during respiration, and its surface tension provides cohesion that keeps the lung surface in contact w the thoraic wall
serous pleural fluid
The lung expands and fill w air when the (1)expands
thorax
the (1)expands and fills w air when the thorax expands
lung
What are the (4)parts of the parietal pleura?
(1)costal part (2)mediastinal part (3)diaphargmatic part (4)cervical pleura
NAME
this has four parts: costal part, mediastinal part, diaphargmatic part, and cervical pleura
parietal pleura
T or F
the lungs completely occupy the pleural cavities
false
Do the lungs completely occupy the pleural cavities?
no
WHat is the costodiaphargamtic recesses?
are pleural lined gutters that surround the upperward convexity of the diaphargm inside the thoracic wall
NAME
these are the pleural lined gutters that surround the upperward convexity of the diapharm inside the thoracic wall
costdiaphargamtic recesses
What are the costmediastinal recesses?
space located posterior to the sternum where the costal pleura is contact w he mediastinal pleura
NAME
this is a space located posterior to the sternum where the costal pleura is contact w he mediastinal pleura
costmediastinal recesses
What is the root of the lung?
is formed by the stuctures entering and emerging from the lung at its hilum
NAME
this is formed by the structures entering and emerging from the lung at its hilum
root of the lung
What does the root of the lung do?
connects the lung w the heart and the trachea
NAME
this connects the lung w the heart and the trachea
root of the lung
What is pneumothroax?
is when air enters the pleural cavity
NAME
this is when air enters the pleural cavity
pneuomothroax
What can cause pneuomothroax? (4)
(1)a penetrating wound of the pleura cavity (2)rapture of the lung from a bullet (3)fractured rib that tears the cavity (4)a leakage from the lung through an opening in the visceral pleura
NAME
this can be caused from a penetrating wound of the pleura cavity, a rapture of the lung from a bullet, fractured rib that tears the cavity, and leakage from the lung through an opening in the visceral pleura
pneumothorax
What is hydrothorax?
is the accumulation of a signifcant amount of fluid in the pleura cavity
NAME
this is the accumulation of a signficant amount of fluid in the pleura cavity
hydrothorax
What is pleural effusion?
is the escape of fluid into the pleura cavity
NAME
this is the escape of fluid into the pleural cavity
pleural effusion
What is hemothorax?
is when blood enters the pleura cavity
NAME
this is when blood enters the pleura cavity
hemothorax
What is chylothorax?
is when lymph from a thoracic duct enters the pleural cavity
NAME
this is when lymph form a thoracic duct enters the pleural cavity
chylothorax
What is the hilum of the lung?
is the point at which the structures such as the main broncus, pulmonary vessles, bronchial vessels, lympathic vessels, and nerve that form the root
NAME
this is the point at which the structures such as the main broncus, pulmonary vessles, bronchial vessels, lympathic vessels, and nerve that form the root
hilum of the lung
What are some functions of the respiartory system? (6)
(1)gas exchange area btwn air and blood (2)moves air (3)warm, moistens, and clean air (4)speech and other respiratory sounds (5)assits in regulating blood vol and compostion (6)protects against pathogens
NAME
its functions include gax exchange btwn air and blood, moves air, warms, moistens and cleans air, speech and other respiratory sounds, and assists in regulatig blood vol and composition and protects aganist pathogens
respiratory systems
What kind of tissue makes of the lungs? (2)
(1)pseduostrafied columnar epihtelia w goblet and cilla (2)simple squamous epithelia
NAME
this is made up of psedoustrafied columnar epihtliea w goblet and cilla, and simple suwamout epithelia tissue
lungs
What are the lung's defense mechanisms? (4)
(1)cillary escalator (2)sticky mucous (3)filtering hairs (4)moistening by large surface area of conchae
NAME
its defense mechanism includes cillary escalator, sticky mucuous, filtering hairs, moistening by large surface area of conchae
the lungs
What makes up the upper rispiratory tract? (2)
(1)nose (2)Pharynx
NAME
this consists of the nose and the pharnyx
upper respiratory tract
What makes up the lower respiratory tract?
(1)larynx
What are (3) parts of the pharynx?
(1)nasopharynx (2)oropharynx (3)laryngogpharynx
NAME
this has three parts: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngogpharynx
pharynx
What are the parts of the lower respiratory tract? (6)
(1)larynx(2)trachea (3)bronchus (4)lungs (5)pulmonary bronchi (6)Alevoli and respiratory membrane
NAME
this is made up of the larynx, trachea, bronchus, lungs, pulmonary bronchi, alevoli, and respiratory membrane
lower respiratory tract
What are the different lobes of the lungs? (2)
(1)left- 2 lobes superior and inferior (2)right 3 lobes--superior, middle, and inferior
NAME
this has 2 left lobes (superior and inferior) and 3 right lobes (superior, inferior, middle, and inferior)
lungs
Where is the cardiac notch?
is a indent on the left lung
NAME
this is a indent on the left lung
cardiac notch
What is the lingula?
is a tongue like process on the superior lobe of the left lung
NAME
this is a tongue like process on the superior lobe of the left lung
lingula
What is each lung like? (3)
(1)has an apex (2)has 3 surfaces--costal, mediastinal and diapharagmatic (3)three borders-anterior,posterior and inferior
NAME
each of these has an apex, 3 surfaces--costal, mediastinal and diapharagmatic, and three borders--anterior, posterior, and inferior
lungs
What are the (3)surfaces of the lung?
(1)costal (2)mediastinal (3)diaphragmatic
NAME
these have three surfaces: costal, mediastinal, and diaphragmatic
lungs
What is the costal surface of the lungs?
faces the ribs
NAME
this surface of the lung faces the ribs
costal surface
What is the mediastinal surface of hte lung?
faces the heart
NAME
this surface of the lung faces the heart
mediastinal
What is the diapragmatic surface of the lung?
faces the diaphragm
NAME
this surface of the lung faces the diaphragm
the diaphragmatic surface
What supports the trachea and the bronchi? (2)
the C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
NAME
this is supported by C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
trachea (2)bronchi
There are (1)bronchi, one for each lung
2
What are the (2)primary bronhi?
(1)right main bronchus (2)left main bronchus
What are the (2)primary bronhi?
(1)right main bronchus (2)left main bronchus
What is the right main bronchus?
is wider and shorter and runs more vertically than the left
NAME
this is the wider and bronchus that runs more vertically than the other
right main bronchi
How are the right and left main bronchus different?
the right main bronchus is wider and shorter and runs more vertically than the left
How are the right and left main bronchus different?
the right main bronchus is wider and shorter and runs more vertically than the left
How are the right and left main bronchus different?
the right main bronchus is wider and shorter and runs more vertically than the left
What are the different parts of the bronchial tree? (4)
(1)secondary branches (2)tertiary bronchi (3)terminal bronhioles (4)respiartory bronchioles
NAME
this has 4 different parts: secondary branches, tertiary bronchi, terminal bronchioles, and respiratory bronchioles
bronchial tree
Why are foriegn bodies more likely to enter the right bronchus than the left?
bc the right bronchus is wider and shorter and runs more vertically
Foriegn bodies are more likely to enter the (1)bronchus
right
Foriegn bodies are more likely to enter the (1)bronchus
right
What is a potential hazard for dentists?
that a foriegn body such as a peice of a tooth or filling will enter the right bronchus