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33 Cards in this Set

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Location and result of stimulation of alpha 1 receptors.
Has contractile effects on smooth muscle especially in blood vessels, urogenital system and sphincters.
Location and result of stimulation of alpha 2
When located on the presynaptic terminal, stimulation of alpha 2 receptors results in the presynaptic control of release of acetycholine, noradrenalin and ATP from nerve terminals.

Alpha 2 receptors located centrally produce peripheral vasodilation.
Location and result of stimulation of beta 1 receptors.
Increases heart rate (through the SA node), increases contractility, increases conduction and automaticity.
Location and result of stimulation of beta 2 receptors.
Relaxation of smooth muscle in the GIT, urogenital system and airways.
Location and result of stimulation of beta 3
Stimulates FFA release from adipocytes.
Location and result of stimulation of muscarinic 1 receptors.
Stomach (increase acid and pepsin secretion)
Ganglion (stimulation)
CNS (neurotransmission)
Location and result of stimulation of muscarinic 2 receptors.
SA and AV node (slows conduction)
Location and result of stimulation of muscarinic 3 receptors.
Smooth muscle of blood vessels, lungs, stomach, bladder and glands where they tend to cause smooth muscle contraction and increase secretion (also cause vasodilation by increasing nitric oxide production)
Effects: Decreases acid and pepsin secretion in the stomach.
At low doses produces bradycardia and at high doses produces tachycardia.
Stimulates bronchodilation and decreased respiratory secretions.
Decreases gut motility.
Produces cycloplegia and mydriasis.
Decreases gland secretion and sweating.
Muscarinic antagonist
Acts on M3 receptors particularly to produce miosis and accommodation.
Indicated in glaucoma and contraindicated in anterior uveitis and anterior lens luxation.
Muscarinic agonist
Acts of M3 receptors paricularly to contract the detrusor muscle and relax the bladder sphincter.
Indicated in urinary retention caused by bladder paralysis after spinal injury.
Muscarinic agonist
Produces similar effects to atropine, but is more potent at the eye and glands and less potent at the heart, lungs and GIT.
Indicated in motion sickness and as an anaesthetic premed (since it is a narcotic)
Muscarinic antagonist
Acts on M2 receptors to produce tachycardia (by giving at a high dose IV)
Indicated to block cardiac inhibitory reflexes during the induction of anaesthesia. Will not cross the blood/brain barrier and thus has very few CNS effects, but does have a long duration of action.
Muscarinic antagonist - quaternary compound
Acts on M1 receptors to decrease to decrease pepsin and acid secretion. Used to treat ulcers, but can produce dry mouth. Very little crosses the blood/brain barrier.
Muscarinic antagonist - tricyclic benzodiazepine
Location and stimulation of response of H1 receptors.
H1 receptors are in smooth muscle, vasuclar endothelial cells and in the chemoreceptor trigger zone.
Stimulation results in systemic contraction of smooth muscle (producing bronchoconstriction, GI contraction and venular contraction). Stimulation results in capillary permeability increasing.
Location and stimulation of response of H2 receptors.
H2 receptors are in the stomach and the chemoreceptors trigger zone.
Stimulation results in increased HCl and pepsin secretion
Location and stimulation of response of H3 receptors.
H3 receptors are located in presynaptic neurones in the CNS and possibly in the periphery.
Stimulation results in autoregulation of histamine release, as well as other neurotransmitters.
Inhibits release of histamine from mast cells. Indicated in prevention of allergies. Is a low/moderate sedative, moderate anticholinergic and a low GI upset. Contraindicated because anticholinergic activity may aggravate bronchial asthma, urinary retention and glaucoma.
Alkylamine antihistamine
Receptor antagonist. Indicated in gastric ulceration. Generally well tolerated, although use with care in patients with liver and renal dysfunction. Alters serum level of many drugs by inhibiting liver p450 enzymes and increasing gastric pH interferes with the absorption of many drugs.
H2 antagonist
Similar in effect to cimetidine, used form gastric ulcers, gastritis and oesophagitis. Very few side effects. Doesn't interfere with p450 metabolism but can still alter drug absorption by increasing gastric pH.
H2 antagonist
Cannot be absorbed through the renal epithelium, which increases the osmolarity of the filtrate and thus draws water in through osmotic drag. Indicated in renal failure, cerebral oedema and glaucoma. Contraindicated in heart disease, hypertension and pulmonary oedema because in the circulation it acts as a colloid to raise venous pressure. IV admin
Osmotic diuretic
Indicated in detrusor instability (although rare in animals). Relaxes the muscle to allow filling. All anticholinergics are contraindicated in urinary obstruction and glaucoma.
Cholinergic antagonist - ganglion blocker. Since ACh is the neurotransmitter (between the pre and post ganglion) in all sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia the blocker will produce blockage of which ever system predominates at the time of treatment.
Indicated in hormonal incontinence of bitches. Results in an increase in internal sphincter tone. Contraindicated in heart disease since it is a vasoconstrictor.
Alpha 1 agonist
Irreversible alkylation of the alpha receptors. Relaxes the internal bladder sphincter in urinary retention (often given with diazepam). Contraindicated in heart disease since it is a vasodilator (blocks sympathetic outflow from the brain and feedback inhibition of noradrenaline release at alpha 2 receptors). Can result in postural hypotension, intense reflex tachycardia and force of contraction (enhanced by the blockage of noradrenaline feedback control at alpha 2 receptors)
Adrenergic antagonist
What is the route of injection for a seizuring animal?
What can be given to control seizures?
Diazepam IV followed by phenobarbital IM. Sodium pentobarbital and propofol are last resorts when status epilecticus is refractory.
Define tranquilizer.
Drug that reduces tension and anxiety, while still being aware of your surroundings.
Define sedative.
CNS depressor, and produces some drowsiness. Some awareness of surroundings still occurs.
What is the postulated CNS effect in Stage I of anaesthesia?
Interference with synaptic transmission in the spinothalamic tract.

Observed clinically as analgesia.
What is the postulated CNS effect in Stage II of anaesthesia?
Blockage of inhibitory pathway, facilitation of excitation.

Observed clinically as disinhibition, emesis, urination, excitement and irregular respirations.
What is the postulated CNS effect in Stage III of anaesthesia?
Depression of ascending pathways in the reticular formation.

Observed clinically as unconsciousness and loss of spinal reflexes.
What is the postulated CNS effect in Stage IV of anaesthesia?
Depression of vital medullary centres

Observed clinically as cardiorespiratory depression.
Define dissociative anaesthesia.
The state of anaesthesia produced by drugs which dissociate the thalamocortic and limbic systems, resulting in general body stiffness and reduced sensitivity to pain.