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79 Cards in this Set

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cognition
the mental activites associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and problem solving
cognitive psychologists
study ways in which we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgements
concepts
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people--organize into hierarchies
prototpye
a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to prototypes provides quick and easy methods for including items in categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical brid, such as a robin
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or proceudre that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the usually speediness-but also more error prone use of heuristics
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedies but also more error prone than algorithms
insight
a sudden and often novel relization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for info that confirm's one's preconceptions
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; and impediment to problemsolving
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent. match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
the availibility heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availibility in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vivedness) we presume such events are common
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significatly affect decisions and judgments- ex. 90%survive, 10% die
belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisiting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid comclusions seem invalid
belief perserverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
language
our spoken, written, or signed words and ways we combine them to communicate meaning
-when speak, brain and voice box conjure up air pressure waves that we send banging against ear drum- enabling us to transfer thoughts
phonemes
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit- 40
morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word prefix
-undesirables= un-desir-able-s
grammar
in a language, a system of rules taht enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics
the set of rules byu which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences ina given language; also, the study of langauge
in fantis
not speaking
receptive language
the ability to comprehend speech
productive language
ability to produce words
babbling stage
4 months, stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters sounds at first unrelated to the household lnaugage
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, 1-2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage
beginning about 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in 2-word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks likea a telegram "go car" using mostly sounds and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
skinner
can explain language development with familiar learning principles. such as association of the sights of things with the sounds and words, imitation of the words and syntax modeled by others, and reinforcement with success, smiles and hugs when the child says something right
chomsky
inborn universal grammar: children learn environment's language and generate sentences they've never heard
-children come naturally equipped w/ a language acquisition device
-surface structure of language: phonemes, morphemes, words, and sentences, and rules by which we can combine them
lanuage determinism
linguist benjamin lee whorf's hypothesis that different lanuage determine the way we think- language shapes a man's basic ideas. if language has no past tense, people can readily think in the past
bilingual advantage
bilingual children who learn to inhibit one language while using thier other language are also better able to inhibit thier attention to irrelevant info
process stimulation
better to spend fantasy tim planning how to get somewhere than to dwell on the imagined destiation-outcome stimultaion
reification
viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing
to reify= to invent a concept, give it a name, and then convice ourselves that such a thing objectively exsists in the world
intelligence
mental quality consisting of thea bility to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusers of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different deimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
general intelligence (g)
aa general intelligence factor that according to spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence teset
primary mental ability
L.L. Thurstone- verbal fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
trarchic theory
analytical, creative intelligence, practical intelligence, social intelligence
analytical (academic problem solving)
assess by intelligence tests, which present well defined problems having a single right answer
creative intelligence
demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situation and generating novel ideas
practical intelligence
often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple slutions
social intelligence
the know-how involved in comprehending social situation and managing oneself successfully
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, mangage, and use emotions
creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideass
convergent thinking
single correct answer
divergent thinking
imagined multiple possible answers to a problem-damage to parietal lobe causes damage to comvergent thinking
expertise
a well developed based of knowledge
imaginative thinking skills
provide the ability to see things in novel ways, to rexognize patterns, to make connections
a ventursome personality
tolerated ambiguity and risk, preservers in overcoming obstacles, and seeks new experiences rather than following the pack
intrinsic motiviation
creativty's 4 component. people are most creative when they feel motivated parimarily by the interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge of the work itself- intrinsic value
a creative environment
sparks, suppors, and refines creative ides
intelligence tests
a method for assess an individual's mental aptitudes and ocmparing them w/ those of others, using numerical scores
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8 year old is said to have a mental age of 8
stanford- binet
the widely used American revision by Terman at Stanford University of Binet’s original intelligence test
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ration of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (IQ= ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
-now performance relative to the average performance of other the same age
aptitude tests
a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
weschsler adult intelligence scare (WAIS)
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
-widely accepted test must be standardized, reliable, and valid
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
normal curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. The most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes-normal distribution
-performance higher than all but 2& of all scores earns an intelligence score of 130. A raw score that is comparably below 98% of all the scores earns an intelligence of 70
flynn effect
improving of intelligence tests performance
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
validity
: the extent to which a test measures or predicts what is supposed to—high reliability does not ensure it
content calidity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks)
criterion
the behavior (such as future college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it if designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior (aka criterion-related validity)
mental retardation
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficult in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
down syndrome
: a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome 21 in one’s genetic makeup
spelling
girls are better spellers
verbal ability
girls are more verbally fluent and more capable of remembering words
nonverbal memory
girls have the edge on boys at locating objects and memory picture association
sensation
girls are more sensitive to touch, taste, odor
underachievement
boys outnumber girls at the low extremes and therefore in special education classes. Boys tend to talk later and to stutter more often
math and spatial aptidues
average girl’s math scores typically equal or surpass the average boy’s.
emotional detecting ability
women better at it than men
stereotype therat
a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
-women score higher on math tests where no male test takers were in a group
-blacks scored higher when tested by blacks than when tested by whites