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131 Cards in this Set

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Does the superior gluteal artery supply gluteus maximus?
Yes but it is not the major branch.
What are the major nerve/arteries to the gluteus maximus?
Iferior gluteal artery and inferior gluteal nerve.
What dermatomes are found in the aneteiro medial thigh?
L1,L2,L3, L4, L5
Which dermatome covers the kneecap?
L4
What are the dominant dermantomes in the aneterior medial thigh?
L4/L5
What is the most lateral-inferior dermatome of the anterior/medial thigh?
L5
Where does the great or long saphenous vein begin?
On the dorsum of the foot or the dorsal venous arch.
Describe the course of teh long saphenous vein.
It runs on the medial side of the ankle and knee. It is posterior to the thigh. It finally runs under the inferior inguinal ligament.
Where is the portion of fascia latae where the great saphenous vein runs through?
The saphenous opening or saphenous hiatus.
After the great saphenous vein goes through the saphenous opening where does it go?
It dumps into the femoral vein.
Where does the superficial epigastric vein run?
From anterior abdominal wall to the saphenous vien or through the saphenous hiatus and directly to the femoral vein.
Which is larger, the internal or external pudendal artery?
The internal pudendal artery is larger.
What does the external pudendal vein drain? What vessel does it join?
It drains the external genitalia nad it goes into the greater saphenous vein.
What is the clinical siginificance of the saphenous vein?
It is used for transplant or coronary bypass.
Does the saphenous vein have valves?
YES!
What do the lymph nodes in the inguinal region drain? (4)
External genitalia, lower portion of anal canal, anterior abdomen, below the umbilicus, superficial lymph from all of the lower limb.
What two lymph node groups are there in the inguinal region? Where do they run?
Horizontal group runs parallel to the inguinal ligamen, the vertical group runs along the terminal saphenous vein.
What is the large straplike muscle that runs across the anterior thigh?
The sartorius muscle.
What complex action does the sartorius allow one to do?
Sit indian style
What is the origin of sartorius?
ASIS
What is the insertion of sartorius?
Crosses then knee and attaches to proximal tibia.
What are the actions of sartorius (3)?
Flex knee
Flex hip
external/lateral rotation of the hip
Which two joints does sartorius cross?
thigh and knee
What surrounds tensor fascia latae?
Fascia latae
What is the action of tensor fascia latae?
It is a flexor of the hip/thigh
What are the 4 parts of the quadriceps group?
Rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralus and vastus intermedius.
What is the action of the quadriceps muscles?
All extensors of the knee (very powerful)
What is the origin of the rectus femoris?
AIIS
Is the ASIS a common point of injury?
YES!
Which of the quadriceps muscles cross the hip joint?
The rectus femoris.
What muscle is just medial from the rectus femorus?
Vastus medialis
What muscle is just lateral from rectus femorus?
Vastus lateralus
What muscle is just under the rectus femorus?
Vastus intermedius
Where do all vastus muscles arise from?
Shaft of the femur
Do the vastus muscles act on the hip?
NO!
What do the quadriceps muscles together form?
Acommon quadriceps tendon proximal to the knee.
What is found within the quadriceps tendon?
The patella, a bone
What type of bone is the patella?
Sesamoid.
Where does the quadriceps tendon attach inferiorly?
On the tibila tuberosity.
After passing the patella what is the new name of the quadriceps tendon?
The patellar ligament. (a continuation of the quadriceps tendon)
What is the additional actions of the vastus medialis and lateralis especially?
Stabilize and hold the patella in place.
Where do the Iliacus and psoas muscles attach?
To the lesser trochanter of the femur.
What is the only muscle to attach to the lesser trochanter?
Iliacus/Psoas muscle.
What are the actions of the iliopsoas?
Flex trunk and the most powerful hip flexor.
What muscle will you work if you are doing situps with your legs extended?
Iliopsoas.
What muscle is just medial to iliopsoas?
Pectineus.
What is the origin of the pectineus?
pectineal line of the pubus
What is the insertion of the pectineus?
Proximal femur.
What is the action of pectineus?
ADDuction and some flexion
What compartment is the pectineus muscle found?
2 = anterior and medial compartments
What nerve innervates sartorius, vastus muscles, iliopsoas, pectinus?
Femoral nerve.
What is the most medial muscle of the thigh?
Gracilis muscle.
What is the attachment of the gracilis muscle?
Attaches w/sartorius to proximal/medial tibia.
What 3 tendons insert on the medial condyle of the tibia? What is this structure called?
Semitendonosus, sartorius, gracilis. This is called the pes anserinus.
What is the action of gracilis?
Adductor of the thigh.
What is the clinical significance of the gracilis muscle?
It is often used for muscle transplants. It can be used to replace the external anal sphincter.
What type of profession might have a well developed gracilis muscle?
Horseback riders
Approximately what percentage of adductor compartment is NOT needed for normal gait?
70%
What muscle is found between pectineus and gracilis?
Adductor longus.
Describe adductor brevis?
A thin sheet-like muscle.
If you cut the pectineus what will you find?
The obturator internis.
Where does the pectineus insert?
Greater trochanter
What is the muscle that makes up the most fleshy part of the medial thigh?
Adductor magnus.
What are the attachments of adductor magnus?
It is fan shapped and mostly attached along the linea aspira also medial supracondyle ridge and the aductor tubercle on the medial condyle of the femur.
Where is the adductor tubercle found?
On the medial condyle of the femur.
What nerve innervates all the adductors of the thigh?
Obturator nerve
What are the attachments of adductor maximus? What compartment is it in?
Body of pubic bone, ischial ramus, ischial tuberosity.
It is a part of the medial compartment.
Where does the hamstring part of adductor magnus attach?
Ischial tuberosity.
What inervates the hamstring part of the adductor magnus?
Tibial nerve.
What muscles are mostly involved in groin pulls?
Adductor longus and magnus.
What muscle has holes that many BV run through in the thigh?
Adductor magnus
What vessel forms the femoral atery?
External iliac artery once it runs under the inguinal ligament
What is the orientation of the femoral nerve, artery and vein in the thigh?
Femoral nerve most lateral, then artery, and vein most medial.
What is the region that the femoral NAV enter?
The femoral triangle.
What forms the superior edge/base of the femoral triangle?
The inguinal ligament.
What forms the medial part of the femoral triangle?
The adductor longus
What forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle?
The sartorius.
What forms the apex of the femoral triangle?
Where the sartorius muscle crosses the the adductor longus.
What forms the floor of the femoral triangle?
Laterally=iliopsoas
Medially=Pectineus
What forms the roof of the femoral triangle?
Fascia latae
Where does the femoral nerve end? What does it form at this point?
In the femoral triangle, if gives off nerves to muscles as well as sensory and cutaneous branches.
What is the femoral sheath?
Where vessels bring transversalis fascia with them as they enter the femoral triangle. This forms the femoral sheath.
What structure is NOT in the femoral sheath?
Femoral nerve.
What are the three compartments of the femoral sheath? What structure is found in each?
Lateral = artery
Intermediate = Vein
medial = Lymph node (cloquet's lymph node)
What does the 1 lymph node in the femoral canal (sheath) drain?
Deep structures of the lower limb/thigh. (Cloquet's lymph node)
What is a femoral hernia?
Where a loop of intestine comes through the saphenous hiatus into the femoral sheath.
Who usually has femoral hernias? Why?
Females because their femoral canal is broader and their pelvis is larger.
If you cut the sartorius muscle what structure will be just under it?
The subsartorial canal.
What are some names for the subsartorial canal (2)?
Adductor Canal
Hunter's canal
What structures are found in the subsartorial canal? (4)
Femoral vein/artery, 2 branches of the femoral nerve (nerve to vastus medialis, and the saphenous nerve)
What bounds the adductor canal in front and laterally?
Vastus medialis.
What bounds the adductor canal behind?
Adductor longus and magnus.
What is the largest branch of the femoral artery that runs just deep to it?
Profunda femoris artery or the deep artery of the thigh.
What muscles does the deep artery of the thigh lie on?
Lies on adductor longus and magnus
What artery does the deep artery of the thigh descend with?
The femoral artery.
What does the deep artery of the thigh supply?
The thigh.
What vessels branches pass through the tendon of adductor magnus in order to reach the posterior compartment of the thigh? What are the smaller arteries called? How many are there usually?
Deep artery of the thigh, Smaller branches called perforating arteries, there are usually 3-5 of them. (sometimes the deep artery ends as one of them.
What two major arteries take origin from the deep artery of the thigh near the point where it breaks from the femoral artery?
The lateral and medial circumflex femoral artery.
Which is larger the lateral or medial circumflex femoral artery?
The lateral
Which is more superior the lateral or medial circumflex femoral artery?
The medial
What branches does the lateral circumflex femoral artery give rise to?
Ascending transverse and descending branches
What is the largest branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery?
The descending branch
What does the descending branch of the femoral artery supply?
The quadriceps groop in the anterior compartment of the thigh.
Does the femoral artery supply anything?
No!
What artery goes around the neck of the femur?
The medial circumflex femoral artery.
What muscle is just deep to adductor longus?
Adductor brevis.
What splits the obturator nerve into anterior and posterior branches?
The adductor brevis.
WHat forms the adductor hiatus?
The adductor magnus
What passes through the adductor hiatus?
Femoral nerve and artery.
Where does the adductor hiatus allow the vessels to go?
To the posterior surface of the knee (popliteal surface)
After the femoral artery and vein pass through the adductor hiatus what are they called?
Popliteal vessels
Trace the course of the major vessel in the thigh.
External iliac becomes femoral becomes popliteal vessel
Where does the sciatic nerve spit?
On the popliteal region of the posterior thigh.
What 2 bones make up the leg? Which is more medial/lateral?
Tibia more medial
Fibula more lateral
Which bones are found in the ankle? Which bones are found in the knee?
Both the tibia and the fibula contribute to the ankle. Only the tibia contribures to the knee. the fibula is NOT part of the knee.
What does the tibial tuberosity recieve?
The patellar ligament which was part of the quadriceps tendon
What are the distal ends of the tibia/fibia called?
Malleolus.
What bone is the medial malleolus a part of?
Tibia
What bone is the lateral malleolus a part of ?
Fibula
What is the oblique line on the posterior aspect of the tibia?
The soleal line
What muscle attaches to the soleal line?
The soleus muscle.
What can be found in the space between the tibia and fibula?
The interosseus membrane
What is the continuation of the fascia latae into the leg called?
The crural fascia.
Which bone is buried deep in the leg?
Fibula.
What is the "shin bone"?
Tibia
What compartments does the crural fascia form on the leg?
Lateral, anterior, posterior compartments.
What is the largest compartment of the leg?
Posterior
What subdivides the posterior compartment of the leg? From where to where does it run?
Transverse septae divides the posterior compartment into superficial and deep. It connects the tibia and fibula.
How close is the crural fascia on the tibia to the skin?
Very close it is subcutaneous.
If you remove subcutaenous fat from the posterior compartment of the thigh what vein will you find?
The short or small saphenous vein. It ends in the popliteal region.
What does the short saphenous vein dump into?
The popliteal vein on the posterior knee.