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253 Cards in this Set

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GnRH in males
Cause increase in testosterone. Test for presence of testicles.
GnRH
Causes release of LH. Lyses follicles=treat cystic ovaries. Induce mare ovulation/bitch estrus
eCG
Equine Chrionic Gonatropin. (PMSG)
From the endotrial cups.
LH acting in mare, FSH in others.
hCG
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Acts like LH.
Prostaglandin E2
Relaxation of the cervix
Prostaglandin F2α
(Lutalyse(R), Estrumate(R))
Luteolysis & smooth muscle contraction.
Induce ovulation(if imminent in mares)
Induce abortion in bitches & queens.
Oxytocin
UTERINE CONTRACTION & MILK LETDOWN.
Produced in the hypothalamus & stored in the posterior pituitary.
Prolactin
Target cells in the mammary gland for lactation.
Supports CL's in the queen & bitch.
FSH in the male
Support the seminiferous tubules by action on the Sertoli cells
LH
Induces OVULATION and luteinization of the theca interna cells.
Progesterone
Produced by the CL
Responsible for maintaining the pregnancy (closing cervix, glandular development of uterus).
Corpus Luteum(CL)
(PL. Lutea)
Previously a follicle after ovulation. Make progesterone from estrogen.
Follicle
Fluid-filled structure on the ovary, contains the soon to be ovulated oocyte.
Produces estrogen.
Gonadal Hormones
(Steroid Hormones)
Estrogen
Progesterone
Testosterone
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
LH
FSH
Prolactin
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Produced by Hypothalamus, stored in Post. Pituitary
Oxytocin
Estrogen
Produced by granulosal cells of follicle.
Causes standing behavior, opens cervix, increase vaginal epithelium thickness.
Therapeutic uses of FSH
Induce superovalution in cows. (Embryo transfer).
Therapeutic uses of Estrogen
Cervical dilation, estrous behavior. Induce fertile heat in bitches.
Therapeutic uses of Progesterone
Close cervix, maintain pregnancy.
Therapeutic uses of Testosterone
Used for estrous control and/or stop lactation. By negative feedback on Pituitary.
Therapeutic uses of Prolactin Inhibitors
Dopamine agonists.
Cause abortion in bitches/stop lactation

Cabergoline, bromocriptine
Therapeutic uses of Dopamine Antagonists
Stimulate lactation (in mares with fescue toxicosis)

Domperidone, Metoclopramide
LH in males
Stimulate Testosterone production by Leydig cells
FSH
Stimulates follicular development
Therapeutic uses of Prostaglandin F2α
Lyse CL: end Progesterone Phase, returns to heat cycle.
Maintenance of pregnancy in mares.
<40 days= Progesterone from primary CL
day 40-100 = eCG from endometrial cups
day 100-330 = Estrogen from fetal gonads
Interestrous Period
time from beginning of one estrus, to the beginning of the next
Interestrous period of the bitch
Average = 7 months
Min. - 120 days (4 months)
Max. - 12 months
Proestrus in the bitch
7-9 days
begins active estrous cycle.
Vulva swells, hemorrhagic discharge from uterus, thickened vaginal epithelium.
Vaginal cytology of Proestrus
Cornification of vaginal epithelium, RBCs from hemorrhage, & WBCs
Behavior of bitch in Proestrus
BITCH, "She will eat his face"
Hormones of the bitch in Proestrus
↑ estrogen,
↓LH, FSH
Progesterone <1ng/ml
Duration of Proestrus
7-9 day average
2-21 day range
Estrus behavior in the bitch
Begins w/ the onset of standing behavior, ends when standing ends.
Vaginal cytology of bitch in estrus
Cornified epithelium predominates. no debris
Hormones of the bitch in estrus
LH & FSH peak @ beginning of estrus- induce ovulation
↑progesterone
↓estrogen
Standing in the bitch
Occurs with intitial ↑ in progesterone. Requires both estrogen & progesterone.
Duration of estrus
Average 7-9 days
Range 2-21 days
Behavior of bitch in diestrus
Stops standing, aggressive towards male advances. Pseudopregnancy
Pseudopregnancy of bitch
occurs after every estrus, if she doesn't get pregnant. last the duration of a normal pregnancy.
vaginal cytology of bitch in diestrus
non-cornified epithelium -fried eggs. no RBCs, lots o' WBCs early.
Hormones of bitch in diestrus
Rapid ↑ in progesterone, peaks @ day 21, decreases afterwards.
Prolactin present, & rises as progesterone fails.
Feline estrous cycle
Seasonal breeders (long day)
induced ovulators
Proestrus in the queen
↑estrogen, ↑activity, ↑vocalization
Vaginal cytology of queen in Proestrus
Not really done, may induce ovulation, too small anyway
Estrus in the queen
Vocalization, rolling, standing.
High estrogen.
Breeding of the queen
copulation induces LH release
4+x to ensure ovulation
Diestrus in the Queen
Only if induced to ovulate, but not pregnant lasts 40-45 days.
Interestrus period in the queen
Only in induced ovulators, when not induced to ovulate.
No estrogen or progesterone. Lasts 8-10 days.
Gestation in the queen
gestation = 63 days (58-70), Luteal phase lasts 9 weeks.
Anestrus in the queen
Long day seasonal breeder, undergoes anestrus during winter months (unless kept indoors, under artifical light)
Conditions caused by Brucella canis
Abortion, Abortion, Abortion
infertility, orchitis/epididymitis, sick stillborn pups.
Diagnosis of Brucella infection
rapid slide agglutination test, false positives.
AGID test to confirm + tests
Treatment of Brucella infection
Euthanasia, or neuter and long-term antibotic therapy w/ streptomycin
Conditions caused by Canine Herpesvirus
Neonatal deaths-fading puppies
Abortion, stillbirths
Canine Herpesvirus
cannot grow in adult b/c too hot, puppy Body temp lower. Only a concern if bitch never exposed=no immunity
Critical time frame for herpes infection
3 weeks pre-whelping, 3 weeks post-whelping
Immunity to Canine herpesvirus
will only cause problem in first litter exposed. afterwards, bitch has antibodies against & will clear infection and transmit protection to pups.
Diseases of concern in feline
FIP-Feline infectious peritonitis
Feline leukemia virus
Feline panleukopenia
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Kitten mortality complex
causes fetal resorption, abortions, stillbirths, fading kittens
Felinve Leukemia Virus
Causes Fetal resorption
Feline Panleukopenia
causes cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens
Methods to diagnose pregnancy in B/Q
Palpation
Radiograph
Ultrasound
Relaxin
Abdominal Palpations for Pregnancy (B/Q)
21-28 days=string of pearls, after 30 days, too hard to distinguish between intestinal contents
Radiography for Pregnancy (B/Q)
Safe after day 40. usually done one week prior to parturition (skeletons more visible), only to count fetuses, not to diagnose.
Ultrasound for Pregnancy (B/Q)
Difficult to tell how many, but can confirm pregnancy & determine fetal viability. Fetal HR > 200 BPM if not stressed. Drops when stressed.
Relaxin test (B)
For canines. Relaxin produced by placenta, measurable after day 21.
Management concerns of pregnant B/Q
Exercise
Weight control
Nutrition
Birthing Area
Pre-parturition Radiographs
Body temp monitor
Exercise concerns during pregnancy (B/Q)
Regular exercise important to maintain muscle tone, fewer dystocias. Less of an issue in cats.
Weight control concerns during (B/Q)
Overweight=more dystocias
Nutritional concerns during pregnancy (B/Q)
Balanced diet, No supplements (Ca especially), ↑ calories in last trimester, feed less, more often as fetuses take up abdomen.
Whelping/Queening areas
Out of high traffic areas, box with pig rails (prevent crushing), 1 week accustomization period, washable rug/blankets
Preparturition radiographs
one week prior, count fetuses to better manage, know how many are in there, so don't need to guess
Body Temp monitor for Bitch
take 2x/day, 1 week before due date, when temp drops (~98), whelping will be w/in 24 hours
Gestation length for Bitch
65 days from LH spike, 61-63 days from breeding
range=55-70 day
Gestation length for Queen
63 day average
Range 58-70
Problems during pregnancy B/Q
Abnormal vaginal discharges,
Fetal wastage,
Prolonged gestion,
Uterine torsion
Abnormal vaginal discharges during pregnancy (B/Q)
Hemorrhagic=may be sign of impending abortion, forced rest
Purulent=evaluate for pyometra
Causes of fetal wastage (B/Q)
Trauma, heat, stress, viral, bacterial.
Treat with PGF2α, to evacuate uterus post-abortion
Prolonged gestation (B/Q)
Make sure of breeding date, end of last estrus.
More common in pregnancies with only 1 fetus, can be from Ca supplement
Initiation of parturition (B/Q)
drop in progesterone, coinciding drop in body temp (especially in bitch)
First stage of parturition
Preparation of uterus, cervical dilation
nesting behavior, nervousness
2nd stage of parturition
Fetus enters pelvic canal, stimulates oxytocin release-contractions
Interval between fetuses
usually 30-60 minutes, inverene if active contractions longer than 1.5 hours or resting longer than 4
Passing of fetus B/Q
Amnion appears first, must be broken, by mom or help so don't suffocate. Mom eats placenta, breaks umbilical cord.
3rd stage of parturition
Passing of placenta
Puerperium
Period after parturition occurs. Involution of the uterus occurs
Normal involution of uterus
Lochia may persist 4-6 weeks,
Normally most expelled in 2 weeks.
Brown/reddish, no odor
Management of damn post-partem (B/Q)
Monitor vulvar discharges,
give unlimited feed/fresh H2O,
start weaning young 3-4 weeks,
reduce dam's feed
Care of newborns (B/Q)
Ensure colostrum intake
poikilothermic for 1st 2 weeks (avoid drafts)
Piling up, crying indicate problems
Monitor weight gain for signs of problems
3 H's
Hypothermia
Hypoglycemia
Hypovolemia
Hypothermia
Biggest killer of puppies
Treatment of 3 H's
warm up first, then feed & water.
If cold GI tract not working properly.
Weight gain of newborns (C)
Should be ~ 10% of birth weight/day.
Should be monitored, can be 1st sign of real problem.
Postpartem diseases (B)
Metritis
Mastitis
Hypocalcemia
Subinvolution of placental sites
Metritis (B)
Inflammation of whole uterus.
Usually following abortion, dystocia (can be normal birth).
Facilitated by retained placenta or fetal tissue, delayed uterine involution.
Signs of metritis (B)
Vulvar discharge, fever, depression, neglect of pups
Diagnosis of Metritis (B)
Guarded swab for vaginal cytology
CBC
Treatment for Metritis (B)
PGF2α to evacuate uterus
Antibiotics,
Fluids,
Supportive care
Mastitis (B)
Enlarged, hot, painful mammary glands
Tends to reoccur in subsequent pregnancies
Treatment of Mastitis (B)
Broad spectrum antibiotics, until culture/suseptibility tests return
Asprin/NSAIDs
Strip & hot pack
Hypocalcemia (B)
Eclampsia.
Can be nutritionally induced
Panting, pacing, trembling
Treatment of eclampsia (B)
IV Calcium gluconate
then oral calcuim through lactation.
Wean if old enough or if reoccurs.
Subinvolution of placental sites (B)
Placental sites that don't heal properly.
lead to postpartum bleeding.
Treatment for subinvolution of placental sites (B)
Give PGF SC for 5 days. Repeat if bleeding persists.
Options for estrus control (B)
Ovaban
Cheque drops
Testosterone
Deslorelin
Ovaban
Progestin-megestrol acetate
not for cats=can cause diabetes
Daily oral tablets to prevent next estrus cycle
8 days @ 1st 3 days of proestrus or 32 days in late anestrus
Cheque Drops
Not for cats
Or dogs w/ liver disease,
or breeding bitches (can't predict next estrus)
daily oral dose, begin 30 prior to predicted proestrus
Testosterone in bitches
common practice in racing greyhounds weekly IM or bi-weekly oral.
Start before puberty.
Usually return to normal estrus after cessation.
Deslorelin
A GnRH analogue implant.
Not in US.
SQ implant= reversible.
Every 6 months
Can induce estrus. Or use with progesterone during anestrus to prevent.
Pseudopregnancy
Occurs after every estrus in the bitch and in bred queen that don't conceive.
Mismating shots (B/Q)
Estrogen injections, not recommended... only do once.
Estrogen injections for mismating (B/Q)
Causes tubular lockage, slows passage of embryos, so that can't implant
Problems with estrogen injections in (B/Q)
Cause bone marrow suppression if repeated dosing w/in 30 days (only B),
↑ risk of pyometra
Other options for mismating
Spay,
wait til day 28-30 for definitive diagnosis, then use other hormones to abort:
Prolactin inhibitors
Prostaglandins
Prolactin inhibitors
Reduces prolactin causing lyses of CL, thus abortion.
Best in 2nd trimester.
Prostaglandins for mismating
Many small injections lyse CL and abort pregnancy.
Best in 2nd trimester.
Puppy vaginitis
Purulent discharge in puppies.
"scientific neglect", will resolve by or @ first estrus.
Don't spay until clears or 1st heat.
Adult vaginitis
Mostly spayed bitches.
Rule out skin disease, UTI and others conditions.
Treat underlying conditions
Episioplasty
Possible treatment of Adult vaginitis.
Removal of excessive skin dorsal & lateral to vulva.
When to breed bitches
1st day she'll stand, every 2-3 days until she won't stand anymore
Progesterone monitoring for breeding (B)
usually <1ng/ml
1st rise=LH peak~ 2ng/ml
5ng/ml= ovulation occurs
LH monitoring for breeding (B)
Important when using frozen semen, to identify best time to inseminate
Breeding management of queen
breed 2-5 times in 48 hours
Take her to male's territory.
Make take several days for her to adjust & become receptive.
When they get Pyometra
a diestral disease-progesterone phase.
Usually 3-5 weeks after estrus in bitch.
Anytime in queen.
Signs of pyometra
Depressed
↑SBCs
purulent discharge if cervix open (usually queen)
PU/PD
Treatment of pyometra
Surgical or Medical intervention
Surgical treatment of pyometra
Best option for non-breeding females.
OHE
Fluids, antibiotics to support.
Support until stabilize enough for surgery.
Medical treatment of pyometra
Prostaglandins PGF2α
Antibiotics (appropriate)
Macroscopic evaluation of semen
Volume
Color
Microscopic evaluation of semen
Motility
Viability
Concentration
Morphology
Factors of Sperm motility
Gross motility- swirling field on low power
Individual motility-moving in straight lines?
Influences of sperm motility
Temperature
Chemicals (spermicides)
Mechanical (aggressive aspiration)
Osmotic pressure (water contamination)
Sperm viability
# alive:# dead
Use vital stain=live sperm don't take up stain, dead ones do.
Not used much b/c no correlation to fertility
Sperm concentration
#sperm/ml*total volume=total sperm/ejaculate.
Can be counted or estimated based on cloudiness, or scrotal circumference (bulls, rams, bucks)
Sperm morphology
done @ 1000x!
Normal vs. abnormal
primary vs secondary abnormality
percentages by counting 100 sperm
Primary abnormalities of sperm
Occur in the testicle, reflect testicular function
misshapen heads
abnormal acrosomes
proximal droplets
coiled tails
midpiece defects
double heads/tails
Secondary abnormalities of sperm
Occur in the epididymus
detached heads
distal droplets
bent tails
Estrous cycle of the Mare
Seasonally polyestrous
long day breeders
average 21 day cycle
Anestrus in the mare
~80% will go through winter anestrus
Transition phase
Transition from winter anestrus into breeding season.
Main cause of early season infertility
Ovaries begin activity
Ends w/ 1st ovulation
Behavioral signs of estrus (E)
Raise tail
winking
frequent urination
acceptance of males
Some show no overt signs
Length of estrus (E)
7-9 days early in season
3-5 days late in season
Estrus in Mare
Cervix & uterus relax
endometrial edema
ovulation 24-48 hours before end of estrus
Foal heat
"9 day heat"
1st estrus postpartum
usually occurs around 9th day
↓success when bred on foal heat, b/c uterus not completely recovered
Diestrus in the mare
14-16 days
Progesterone predominates
cervix & uterus tone
no longer receptive to male
-actively aggressive
biphasic wave of FSH
cycle of FSH release continously occurring, 1st cause ovulatory follicle, 2nd cause diestrus follicle that don't usually ovulate
responsible for 2ndary CL's that maintain pregnancy
Anestrus
(winter)
~October-February
-occurs in 80% of mares
ovaries are small & inactive
cervix & uterus very relaxed
passive towards stallions
Causes of persistent estrus (E)
"Nymphomania"
-most common during spring transition phase
-hormonally active granulosa cells
-chromosomal abnormalities (XO)
3 conditions caused by granulosa cell tumors
most common ovarian tumor
hormonally active tumors cause=
1. persistent anestrus
2. persistent estrus
3. stallion-like behavior
↑ testosterone & inhibin
other ovary atrophies
Diagnosis of granulosa cell tumors
"Granulosa Cell Panel"=
Serum tests for:
progesterone
testosterone
inhibin
Chromosomal abnormalities of concern(E)
XO
Can cause persistent estrus or anestrus
Normal (nonpathologic) causes of persistent anestrus
winter anestrus (80%)
post-partum anestrus (after foal heat)
Pregnancy
Abnormal causes of persistent anestrus
chromosomal abnormalities
granulosa cell tumors
inadequate nutrition
ovarian senescene (menopause-like)
persistent CL/anovulatory follicle
diestrus ovulation
hormone therapy
Causes of shortened luteal phase
Endometritis
endotoxins
diagnostic procedures
-all cause inappropriate release of PGF2α
3 phases of pregnancy in the mare
Early =ovulation→Day 40
Endometrial cup phase=Day 40→Day 100
Placental phase=day 100→day 330 (parturition)
Time frame of embryo implantation
Fertilized in uterine tubes
day 6-7-reach uterus
day6-16-wanders throughout the uterus=prevents PGF release
day 16-embryo implants
Endometrial cup phase of gestation
Day 40-100
Endometrial cups produce eCG→LH-like activity in mare
lutenizes 2ndry follicle to 2ndry CL=progesterone to maintain pregnancy
Abortion during endometrial cup phase
Even if it occurs, endometrial cups remain & produce eCG, so she won't go back into estrus till after day 100
Placental maintenance of pregnancy
Estrogen from fetal gonads sustains pregnancy
Estrogen ↓near parturition
Progesterone ↑near parturition
Conditions of concern during pregnancy of mare
Prepubic tendon rupture
uterine torsion
hydrops
Prepubic tendon rupture in mare
occurs late in pregnancy
-usually in draft breeds
-usually fatal
Uterine torsion in mare
occurs late in pregnancy
-presents as colic
diagnose by rectal palpation of broad ligament
treat surgically or by "rolling"
-plank in the flank
Hydrops in mare
excessive fluid accumulations in amniotic and allantoic sacs
pressure can kill fetus, or rupture prepubic tendon
treat by inducing abortion
Predicting parturition in mares
Monitor Ca levels in milk
->200ppm=will foal w/in 72 hours (most sooner)
increased size of mammary glands in last month
relaxation of vulva & pelvic tendons= tailhead rises
Gestation length of mares
11 months, 11 days
(330-345 days average)
normal range=305-400
will be longer if foaling in winter, or carry males
Pregnancy diagnosis in mare
Fetal heartbeat detectable via U/S by day 24
Palpable by day 28-30
Growing size of fetus for sports fans
Day 28-golf ball
Day 35-softball
Day 60-football
Day 90-basketball
3 Stages of parturition
Stage 1-preparatory stage
Stage 2-expulsion of fetus
Stage 3-passing of placenta
Preparatory stage of parturition
Mare is sweating, restless
Foal repositions itself @ cervix
Mare can stop & wait hours or days if bothered
Stage 2 of parturition
Can last 10-40 minutes (20 average)
Chorioallantoic membrane bursts=breaking water
Fetus enters pelvic canal
Mare lays on side to push
ends when hips pass vulva & she stops pushing
Ferguson's reflex
when fetus enters pelvic canal, causes oxytocin release
Stage 3 of parturition
contractions of myometrium cause the placenta to detach, should pass within 3 hours after foal is.
should be smooth & gray on outside (gets turned inside-out)
Parts of Mare breeding soundness exam
History
Mare status
Physical exam
History portion of breeding soundness exam
Age-older than 12 may have reduced fertility & comformational changes
Breeding history-previous pregnancies/births, any infertility, Uterine infection
Mare status of breeding soundness exam
Foaling Mare-most fertile
Maiden Mare-unproven
Barren Mare-most problematic
Maiden Mare
Unproven reproductive status
younger mares considered normal until proven otherwise
Older mares may have problems
Barren mare
Has history of foaling, but not this year. Includes mares that have bred, but not convceived/foaled and those just not bred
Physical exam part of breeding exam
General health
External genitalia
Rectal exam
Vaginal exam
U/S exam
Uterine endoscopy, cytology, culture & biopsy
Chromosomal karyotpe
What to look for during external genitalia exam
tight seal of vulva-doesn't suck air when open
perpendicular of ground
most below the ischatic arch
What to look for during rectal exam
Repro tract-abnormal pelvic canal
uterus-tone, size, make sure not pregnant already
ovaries-size activity, ovulation fossa
What to look for during Vaginal speculum exam
health of vagina & cervix
discharges, pooling of urine, injury, vaginitis
must exam immediately after opening, b/c air will make appear hemorrhagic
What to look for during U/S exam
fluid in uterus
endometrial cysts/edema
pregnancy
ovary activity
What to look for during uterine cytology
inflammatory cells (mainly neutrophils)
What to look for during uterine culture
use a guarded swab to rule out bacterial/fungal endometritis
must do cytology or biopsy to interpret
What to look for during uterine biopsy
Grades describe endometrium
Grades I, IIA, IIB, III
Grade I uterus
Normal endometrium
>80% chance of normal foaling
Grade IIA
inflammation present w/ or w/o fibrosis
~75% chance of normal foaling
Grade IIB
inflammation w/ or w/o fibrosis
~50% chance of normal foaling
Grade III
extensive fibrosis w/ or w/o inflammation <10% chance of foaling
What to look for on chromosomal karyotyping
only needed on maiden mares, w/ congenital abnormalities-small repro tract/ovaries, flaccid uterus/cervix
What to look for during uterine endoscopy
may be needed in mares w/ history of infertility, uterine trauma/dystocia.
Identify UT junctions, adhesions, other endometrial abnormalities
Endometritis
the most common cause of infertility in mares.
Caused by mare's inability to deal w/ or clear bacterial contamination
Common uterine pathogens
Strep, E. coli
Yeast
Venereal-pseudomonas & klebsiella
Prognosis of chronic endometritis
usually a life-long problem of recurrent infections, leading to fibrosis & infertility
CEM
Contagious Equine Metritis
Caused by Taylorella equigenitalis
must quarantine imported breeding stock from endemic areas
Treatments of endometritis
Intrauterine antimicrobials
systemic antimicrobials
Uterine lavage
minimal contamination breeding techniques
oxytocin
DMSO
Caslick's surgery
Curettage
Intrauterine antimicrobial therapy
large volumes for adequate coverage of uterus, must base of sensitivity tests
Administered warm, 3-5x/day
Systemic antibiotic therapy
used in mares w/ signs of systemic infection, usually in postpartum mares
Broad spectrum antibiotics
Uterine lavage
large volumes of warmed fluids (+/- antibiotics)
helps clear debris
Minimum contamination breeding techniques
breeding w/ semen mixed with antibiotic extender
or deposit antibiotic extender before natural cover
Oxytocin for treatment of endometritis
helps clear debris
can be given post breeding
may need multiple doses
DMSO for treatment of endometritis
helps clear inflammation & reduce fibrosis
multiple treatments, 3x/day
Caslick's surgery
vulvoplasty
temporary remedy for chronically infected
staple vulva closed until pregnancy diagnosed
Curettage
mechanical or chemical scrapping of uterine lining
hope
Anatomic abnormalities
Vulvar conformation, Urine pooling, Persistent hymen
Vaginal adhesions, Cervical tears/scarring, endometrial hypoplasia/ atrophy/ fibrosis/ cysts, uterine adhesions/foreign bodies/tumors/abscesses
Vaginal adhesions
usually caused by traumatic dystocia, vaginal walls grow together to close reproductive tract, preventable, sometimes fixable
Cervical tears/scarring
usually after dystocia or forcefull removal of fetus, but can be after normal foaling.
scars prevent cervix from closing tightly, fixable w/surgery
Endometrial hypoplasia
usually in mares with chromosomal abnormalities and/or intersexes.
Permanent
Endometrial atrophy
in old/debilitated mares,
confirm with biopsy
Endometrial fibrosis
Degenerative change, caused by chronic infections/harsh therapy
can be helped with DMSO
Endometrial cysts
must differentiate from actual pregnancy, many can carry with multiple cysts
Uterine adhesions
caused by trauma following foaling/dystocia/uterine therapy
Uterine foreign bodies
Iatrogenic
fetal remnants
can remove & restore fertility
Uterine tumors
rare, but may be able to remove
Uterine abscesses
from trauma
metritis
pyometra
Prostaglandins in mare
Primarily for luteolysis, though not effective till 5 days post-ovulation
Uses of Prostaglandins in mare
Shorten luteal phase
Elective abortion-before day 40
Treat uterine infections-get back under estrogen control helps clearing
Uses of oxytocin in the mare
Induce parturition
For retained placenta
evacuate the uterus & promote involution
Uses of hCG (E)
LH activity
Induce ovulation 24-48 hours after injection
diagnose cryptorchid
Regumate
an oral progestin, daily administration
used to end transitional phase-ovulatory heat 3-5 days post injection
Controlling estrus behavior in performance mares
Maintain pregnancy-1st 100 days
Progesterone use (E)
Controlling stallion-like behavior in geldings & estrus behavior in mares
Delaying postpartum estrus
Thyroxin
Used in many to improve fertility & maintain pregnancy
"stressed mares may be euthyroid"
Deslorelin (E)
GnRH analogue
an implant
used to stimulate ovulation
may cause problems next estrus, if they don't get pregnant
Breeding management of the mare
breed on day 2 of estrus & every other day, until out
Pasture breeding best
hand/artifical breeding easier w/hCG/deslorelin
Lighting effect
place under increasing light @ least 60 days before you want to breed her
(usually 15 Dec-to breed 15 Feb)
Best added @ end up day up to 16 hours
Encouraging early cycling
↑light
Regumate
Other breeding management factors to consider
Rectal palpation/ U/S of uterus & ovaries
Vaginoscopy
Teasing
Prostaglandins
Shipped cooled semen vs froze semen
Teaser
figure out who's in estrus
U/S / palpation of ovaries & uterus
measure follicles-ovulatory follicles~3.5-4cm
Shipped cooled semen
shipped overnight in Equitainer
dose placed directly into mare w/o warming
sometimes split & 2nd dose implanted next day
Frozen semen
short-life span
must be placed within 4-6 hours of ovulation
have to follow thawing instructions exactly
U/S Diagnosis of pregnancy
12-14 days post-ovulation
check for twins
continue to recheck
Diagnosis of pregnancy w/o U/S
teaser male 14 days post ovulation, to check for estrus
no estrus by day 21-rectal palpation
repeat day 30-35
Twinning with mares
#1 cause of non-infectious abortion
what to do w/ twins
if detected prior to day 16, 1 of the amnion vesicle is crushed
reduce feed-negative feed balance to resorb one
transvaginal aspiration of one
per rectal decapitation
Vaccinations for pregnant mares
Rhinopneumonitis virus-EHV-1
Tetanus
Rhinopneumonitis virus
EHV-1
#1 viral cause of abortion
vaccinate @ 5,7 & 9 months
keep mares isolated from traveling horses
Fescue
Symbiotic relationship with Acremonium coenophialum, a fungus.
Fescue toxicity (E)
prolonged gestation
agalactia
dystocia
thickened placenta
poor foals
Prevention of fescue toxicity
remove mares from fescue pasture @ day 300 prevents all adverse effects
Treatment of fescue toxicity
domperidone
resperpine
before foaling
↑ prolactin
3 factors of stallion fertility
libido
mating ability
semen quality
Breeding soundness exam of stallion
Handling
history
physical exam
genitalia
bacterial cultures
semen collection & eval, longevity
Physical exam concerns of stallion
musculoskeletal issues,
rear lameness of particular concern
Exam of genitalia of stallion
palpate scrotum/testes
scrotal width
Bacterial cultures for stallion
from urethra before & after ejaculate
shaft
urethral fossa
look for Klebsiella, pseudomonas, CEM
Semen collection of stallion
artifical vagina
chemical induction
Semen eval for stallions
>1 billion normal sperm in 2nd ejaculate 1 hour apart
Semen longevity test for stallion
semen left @ room temp & checked hourly for motility
also done with extended semen
Infectios causes of infertility of stallion
klebsiella, pseudomonas, CEM, Equine Viral arteritis, Equine herpesvirus 3, Dourine-trypanosoma (not in US)
Non-infectious causes of infertility of stallion
Injury, overuse, neoplasia, hemospermia, urospermia, testicular degeneration, cryptochidism