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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
imperfect authentic cadence
the vii(dim) triad is substituted for the V, making the cadence vii(dim 6) to I or vii(dim 6) to i

V or I can be inverted
half cadence
ends in V chord
phyrigian half cadence
last two chords are iv6 to V
plagal cadence
almost always progression: IV to I in major or it's equivalent iv to i in minor keys. Sometimes ii6 to I occurs as a plagal cadence
deceptive cadence
the first chord is V and the second chord is NOT I.
rhythmic cadence
contain characteristic rhythmic patterns that create a rhythmic cadence. The end of the phrase can be sensed by tapping the rhythm alone. Often end with a longer note than the prevailing note or notes.
nonharmonic tones
Nonharmonic tones specifically are pitches that sound along with a chord but are not chord pitches. Most nonharmonic chords create dissonance and create intervals of seconds, fourth or sevenths.
unaccented nonharmonic tones
are-unaccented passing tones, unaccented neighbor tones, escape tone, anticipation
unaccented neighbor tones
(NT- goes up or down and then back to the original note)
escape tone
goes up by step and down by skip
goes up or down by step and then has a common tone
accented nonharmonic tones
accented passing tones, accented neighboring tone, suspension, retardation
skip APP skip
common tone SUS then step
common tone RE then a step (similar to a suspension except that the resolution is upward instead of downward)
successive passing tones
two passing tones occasionally fill an interval of a fourth. In such cases both the passing tones may be unaccented or they may be a combination of accented ad unaccented passing tone
changing tones
double neighbor tone
neighbor group
two successive nonharmonics tones. The first leads by step from a chord tone, skips to another nonharmonic tone, and then leads by step to a chord tone.
pedal tone (also called a pedal point
is a held or repeated note, usually in the lowest voice, that alternates between consonance and dissonance with the chord structures above it. Thus, the dissonaces are created by the moving chords above rather than the pedal tone itself.
inverted pedal tone
when a pedal tone occures above other voices, it is called an inverted pedal tone
recurs melodic or rhythmic figure that acts as a unifying element
Melodic motive
repeated pitch patterns that usually recur with the same or similar rhythmic patterns
rhythmic motive
recurring rhythmic pattern in a piece of music
repeated melodic motive at a higher or lower pitch
sequence segment
each seperate unit of a sequence
real sequence
contains continuing segments that are an exact transposition of the first segment
tonal sequence
only diatonic notes of the scale are used
modified sequence
some of the segments may be decorated or embellished in a way that does not destroy the original character
false sequence
repeats a part of a figure and states the remainder in sequence - a mixture of sequence and repetition
a substantial musical thought usually ending with a harmonic, melodic and rhythmic cadence. The presence of a cadence distinguishes a phrase from a motive. Phrases are usually four meausures long but can be longer.
phrase member
contain slight melodic interruptions and thus divide into two phrase members. They are seperated by a longer note value or rest
the first phrase ends with a weak cadence, the second phrase ends with a strong cadence and the two phrases bear some musical relationship

ANTECEDENT CONSEQUENCE - question answer effect
parallel period
they both begin in the same manner.
contrasting period
results when the two phrases are not similar in melodic content
A A B (antecedent, antecedent, consequent) or A B B (antecedent, consequent, consequent).

The third phrase must end with a stronger cadence than either of the other two.
double period (four phrase period)
the fourth phrase must bring the period to closure and should be at least as strong as any of the other three.
repeated phrases
the second phrase is not dependent on the first.
extended phrases
the length has been increased through the elongation of some part of it. Sequence and repetition are means for extending phrases. (the phrase would be complete without the extension
change of mode
phrases are sometimes modified by a change of mode from major to parallel minor or vice versa
climax tone
the highest sounding stressed tone of a phrase or other unit
leading up the climax tone
going down after the climax tone to the final note or chord etc
the way the melodic, rhythmic and harmonic materials are woven together in a composition
described as either "thick" (consisting of many voices or parts) and "thin" (consisting of few voices)
described as "wide" or "narrow" depending on the interval between the lowest and highest tones
monophonic texture
simple texture type consisting of a single melodic line
polyphonic texture
consists of two or more moving lines moving independantly or in imitation with each other
homophonic texture
made up of a melody and an accompaniment. The accompanyment provides rhythmic and harmonic support for the melody
homorhythmic texture
a texture with similar rhythmic material in all parts.
primary melody
the most important lines in a musical texture
secondary melody
melodic lines that are not equal in significance to the primary melody
parallel supporting melody
melodies that are similar in contour with a PM or SM. They maintain a constant interval relationship with the melody and support
static support
there are two types:
1.) sustained tones or chords which are often pedal tones
2.) repeated melodic and rhythmic figures or ostinati
harmonic and rhythmic support
they are often combined in the same textural elements
textural reduction
removing the rhythmic materials from the texture and writing the results as block chords