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19 Cards in this Set

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Theory
A mental viewing
A (speculative)proposed idea//plan
A statement of a relationship that helps explain some observable phenomenon
It involves something in reality that has not been proven yet
*In nursing: it is actions, hypothesis, predicted affect; explain client behavior and affect it has on health.
Example: prolonged immobilization from bed rest, maternal attachment, estein's theory of E-mc^2
Model
A small copy or imitation of a design
A generalized hypothetical description often based on an analogy used to explain something
Helps explain the conept or object it represents
A way of seeing all the parts in relationship to the whole
More concrete
Models in nursing are derived from nursing theories.
Example: patterns of DNA, Archiete, outlines.
Nursing Models and Theories Answer what Questions?
What is Nursing?
What do nurses do?
What are nurses?
What is health?
Who created Systems Theory?
Ludwig Von Bertanlanfty
What is the definition of a Systems Theory?
Systems theories is a way fo studying human bheavior scientifically through "wholes" that function "holistically" because of the interdependence of their parts.
holistically
looking at client/patient as a whole
system
a whole that functions as a whole due to the interdependence of its parts
a set of parts connected to function as a whole for some purpose: it functions due to the interdependence of its parts
may be open or a closed system
example: human body
four essential parts to all systems
system:
input: info and material that enters the system
output: info we put back into the environment
Feedback loop: both postiive and negative feedback
Nursing models define what four concepts?
person, environement (internal-personality, emotion etc; external- interactions,relationships,living arrangements, physical), health and nursing
Roy
adaptation
Newman
pattern
Watson
philosphical balance
Orem
care
Nursing Metaparadigm
person: biological, psychological, social being with the ability for self-care
health: able to live life to the fullest through self-care
environment: the medium through which the client/person moves
nursing: assistance in self=care activites to help the client achieve health
Nursing metaparadigm: nursing three step process
1. determine if care is needed
2. catagerize individual
3. provide care
Roy Adaptation Model Key Concepts
Behavior responses (output)
Stimuli (input)
Man (person, patient, client) is the center (system)
Evaluation (feedbackloop)
*Try to figure out if patient is adaptive (cope or adjust) or non-adaptive (cannot cope w. state of illness)
Health as Expanding Consciousness
Margaret Newman
Finding a pattern= helping
To see health as pattern of the whole
One needs to see disease as a manifestation of the evolving pattern of person-environment interaction
Task not to change the pattern but to recognize it as information that represents the whole and relate to it as it unfolds.
Jean Watson
Model of Human Caring
It is philosphical and is not based on system theory
Spiritual and religious
Main concern is balance of impersonal aspects of nursing care with perosnal/interpersonal elements of care that grow from the humanistic belief in life
Recognizes that spirituality is essential element of life
Balance cure and caring
Morality
Reduces Dichotomy (division) between theory and practice
Waston and the meaning of Caring
caring is essence of nursing and most central/unifying focus for nursing practice
Most valuable attribute nursing has to offer
Caring is intrinsically related to healing
Care and love are hte most universal, the most tremenddous, and the most mysterious of cosmic forces; they comprise psychic energy