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33 Cards in this Set

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analysis of existing data
When a researcher analyzes data that was previously collected by a gov't or non-gov't agency (usually for purposes different from that of the researcher)
conceptualization
The process of defining (specifically) what a term means, that way if someone disagrees with the definition they will at least know what the researcher means by the term they are using.
content analysis
When a researcher analyzes the content of some form of communication. Requires knowing the criteria of the content that will be looked for in the form of communication.
cross-sectional study
Research method that involves questioning a group of people and/or observing their behavior at ONE POINT in time ONLY.
dependent variable
The variable affected by or changed by a change in another (independent) variable.
equal probability of selection method (EPSEM)
All members of a population have an equal chance of being selected for a sample. Foundation of Probability Sampling.
field observation
Research method in which the researcher, either as participant or nonparticipant, watches the phenomenon he or she is studying unfold in their natural setting.
generalization
When the characteristics of a population are based upon the characteristics of a sample.
independent variable
The variable that causes the change or effect in another (dependent) variable.
literature review
An examination of available literature on a research topic to help refine the topic and relate it to current and past inquiries.
longitudinal study
Research method that involves questioning a group of people and/or observing their behavior at VARIOUS POINTS over a SPECIFIC PERIOD of time.
nonprobability sampling
*name three
A nonrandom sampling strategy in which the degree of error cannot be calculated. Used when it's not possible to accurately estimate the size of a population. (Usually occurs when the topic is highly sensitive and examines hidden or stigmatized groups). *Quota sampling, Accidental sampling, Snowball sampling.
operationalization
The process of specifying how one will measure particular concepts.
population
The entire array of cases that could potentially be studied in a research project.
probability sampling
*name four
A sampling strategy involving random selection in which the degree of accuracy/representativeness of the sample can be calculated. *Simple, Stratified, Systematic, Cluster.
reliability
The consistency of a measure.
validity
The accuracy of a measure.
representativeness
The degree to which the sample and population are similar.
sample
A subset of cases selected from a population for participation in a research project.
survey research
Research method in which the researcher asks a sample of respondents questions using a questionnaire or by interviewing them.
unit of analysis
Who or what the researcher will actually study.
variable
A logical set of attributes or qualities. Distribution varies among the population that posses them.
positivist model of inquiry
Researcher that is an OBJECTIVE scientist who sets out to uncover social facts. Believes that values and biases have no place in the research process.
radical/feminist models of inquiry
View neutrality in the research process as impossible and undesirable. Believe that researchers select problems to be studied at least in part on the biases of their personal values.
theory
set of interconnected statements or propositions that explain how two or more events or factors are related to one another.
inductive theory
begin with an observation end with a theory
deductive theory
begin with a thoer end with an observation
how to determine whether or not a theory is good:
1. it's parsimonious (clear)
2. scope (range of topic explained
3. accuracy
Uniform Crime Report
Major source of official data on crime in the US. A compliation of crimes reported to the FBI by different law enforcement agancies. Divided into 2 parts: index crimes and other crimes.
Index Crimes
8 offenses of murder, non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, (violent crimes against a person) burglary, larceny-theft, car theft, and arson (crimes against property Pg 243
National Crime Victimization Survey
major source of data on victimization in the US. Provides info. on reason for not contacting police, relationship to offener, etc. And highlights gap between UCR and volume of crime reported by victims. Pg 245
Criminology
seeks to explain crime/criminal behavior using theory
Paradigm
School of thought with in a discipline, that provides the scientist with a model for choosing the problem to be analyzed, method for analyzing them and the theoretical framework for explaining them.