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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mahler's Stages
1. normal autistic phase
2. symbiotic phase
3. hatching
4. practicing
5. rapprochement
6. emotional object constancy
Eriksons Eight Stages of Man
1. basic trust vs. basic mistrust
2. autonomy vs. shame & doubt
3. initiative vs. guilt
4. industry vs. inferiority
5. identity vs. role confusion
6. intimacy vs. isolation
7. generativity vs. stagnation
8. ego integrity vs. despair
Piaget stages of cognitive development
1. sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)
2. preoperational thought (2-7 yrs)
3. concrete operations (7-11 yrs)
4. formal operations (11-adolescence)
Normal autistic phase
- Mahler's stage 1/6
- ~first 6 wks of life
- inward state: infants sleep, eat, wet, and that's about it
- later research: infants do begin to develop a sense of who they are through smell, taste, touch
Symbiotic phase
- Mahler's stage 2/6
- very limited capacity to be independent outside of the caretaker
- breastfeeding is the beginning of the blurring of the line between where one body ends and the other's begins
Hatching phase
- Mahler's stage 3/6
- differentiation & development of the body image
- infant is becoming a real person, with a temperament, etc.
- infant wants to be with you but knows she is separate
- you can interact with her
Practicing phase
- Mahler's stage 4/6
- Child begins to crawl, walk, talk, and influence her world
- Becomes curious and explores within certain orbit of the central figure
Rapprochement phase
- Mahler's stage 5/6
- "to move back together again"
- Child begins to understand the world, realizes her vulnerability
- Begins to explore within a more narrow orbit of central figure
- Usually has a "pecking order" as to who is primary among central figures
Emotional object constancy
- Mahler's stage 6/6
- begin to gain confidence
- building block is object permanence, which is a concept of trust
- realize that others care about you even though you cannot see them
- otherwise--insecurity
Body ego
- coined by Freud
- First way we have our sense of identity is primarily through taste, smell, touch
- First way we have of knowing the world is through body experiences
Ego Defense
- Coined by Anna Freud
- Created a nosology of understanding our defense mechanisms
- Everyone uses defense mechanisms--only unhealthy if they become distorted or limited
Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
- Erikson's stage 1/8
- analagous to Frued's oral stage
- Earliest dilemma is "Am I safe? Will I be taken care of?"
- Child decides he is safe or not
- Abuse/neglect can lead to mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
- Erikson's stage 2/8
- Outcome determined by parent's response to how the child is doing.
a. Positive response: autonomy
b. Negative response: shame and doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
- Erikson's stage 3/8
- Sense that it is OK/safe to explore and try new things and satisfy curiosity.
- Initiative leads to sense of "I can do this."
- Guilt leads to sense of shame and doubt.
- The way a parent reacts is internalized.
Industry vs. Inferiority
- Erikson's stage 4/8
- Success means achieving a sense of being capable and able to contribute
- Developing friendships and social skills
- Using imagination and play for competency and role-playing
Identity vs. Role Confusion
- Erikson's stage 5/8
- Usually during adolescence
- Teen reevaluates who she is, her values, career aspirations, etc.
- Adult modeling and behavior is important
Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Erikson's stage 6/8
- Young adulthood
- Begin to settle down, look for significant others
- Look for emotional and physical intimacy
- May include marriage or close friendship
Generativity vs. Stagnation
- Erikson's stage 7/8
- May choose to have a family and be productive
- Develop a career
- Versus someone who "never takes off"
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
- Erikson's stage 8/8
- End stage of life, when individual reflects back and feels satisfied or disappointed.
- Piaget's phase 1/4
- 0-2 yrs
- Similar to body ego (infant experiences life through touch, taste, smell)
Preoperational thought
- Piaget's phase 2/4
- 2-7 yrs
- Magical and literal thinking; no concept of conservation of mass & other principles of science.
Concrete operations
- Piaget's phase 3/4
- 7-11 yrs
- Main school years
- Little capacity for abstract thought.
- Able to deal with 2+2=4, etc.
Formal operations
- Piaget's phase 4/4
- 11 through adolescence
- Capacity for abstract thought develops (e.g., in science, math, ethics)
Hinderances to developing object constancy
1. trauma
2. abuse
3. multiplicity of caregivers
4. internalization of caregiver's separation anxiety