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155 Cards in this Set

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Sigmund Freud
founder of psychoanalytic therapy, Austrian, Jewish, poor, bright child, medical student, emotional problems in early 40s, hostility w dad, sexual feelings w mom, intolerant of other doctrines
(Freud) sexual energy; energy of all life instincts
life instincts
(Freud) inclinations that serve the purpose of the survival of the individual and the human race and that are oriented toward growth, development, and creativity; seek pleasure/avoid pain
death instincts
an individual's unconcious wish to die or to hurt themselves or others; accounts for the agressive drive
aggressive drive
the behavior that is a manifestation of the death instincts
(Freud) the original system of personality (the biological component); the primary source of psychic energy and the seat of instincts; blind, demanding, insistent and ruled by the pleasure principle; largely unconscious
executive that governs, controls, and regulates personality between instincts and environment; ruled by the reality principle, formulating plans of action for satisfying needs and checking the impulses of id
judicial branch of personality; operates on a moral or ideal principle, striving for perfection; related to psychological rewards and punishments
the larger part of the mind that exists below the surface of awareness; the root of neurotic symptoms and behaviors; the aim of therapy is to make the unconscious conscious
(Freud) state of tension that motivates people to do something; develops from conflict between id, ego, superego
Reality anxiety
(Freud)fear of danger from the external world
neurotic anxiety
(Freud) fear that the instincts will get out of hand; fear of the id
moral anxiety
(Freud)fear of one's own conscience
ego-defense mechanisms
unconscious processes that deny or distort reality and help the individual cope with anxiety
threatening or painful thoughts and feelings are excluded from awareness
(Freud) ego-defense mechanism; distorting what the individual thinks, feels, or perceives in a traumatic situation; closing one's eyes to the existence of a threatening reality
reaction formation
(Freud) ego defense mechanism; defending against a threatening impulse by actively expressing the opposite impulse. EX: conceal hate with love
(Freud) ego-defense mechanism; attributing to others one's own unacceptable desires and impulses. EX: you are mad at me!
(Freud) ego defense mechanism; discharging impulses by shifting from a threatening object to a "safer target." EX: taking anger at boss out on kids
(Freud) ego defense mechanism; justifying behaviors through reasoning. EX: I made a bad grade because I didn't care
(Freud) ego defense mechanism; diverting sexual or aggressive energy into other channels that are more socially acceptable. EX: channel aggresion into sports
(Freud)ego defense mechanism; coping with anxiety by reverting to immature and inappropriate behaviors. EX: frightenend child sucks thumb like when he was younger
(Freud) ego defense mechanism; taking in the values and standards of others to deal with anxiety. EX: A person who is nervous about a test takes in the standard of his teacher that "this does not matter in the grand scheme of things"
(Freud) ego defense mechanism; enhancing self-worth and protecting oneself from failure by aligning with things deemed successful or worthy. EX: becoming a member of a civic club to defend against feelings of guilt for not helping those in need
(Freud) ego-defense mechanism; masking a perceived weakness or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations. EX: focusing on studies to make up for lack of social skills
psychosexual stages
Freud's stages that depict how an indivudal progresses in acceptance of sexuality and sexual feelings in conjunction with parental response
oral stage
(Freud) first year of life; infant needs to get basic nurturing or later feelings of greediness and acquisitiveness may develop
anal stage
1-3 years old; anal zone becomes of significance in formation of personality; learning independence, power, and expression of negative feelings
phallic stage
3-6; conflict over repressed incestous desires of child for opposite sex parent -- Electra complex for girls, Oedipus complex for guys
latency stage
6-12; sexual interests replaced by social interests, child turns outward to relationships
genital stage 1
(Freud) ages 12-18; themes of phallic stage revived, how do I deal with sexual energy?
genital stage 2
(Freud)18 and up; developing freedom to love and work, capacity to care for others, and freedom from parental influence
Erik Erikson
built on Freud's ideas of psychosexual development to include psychosocial stages; credited with bringing social emphasis to psychoanalysis
Erikson's depiction of a turning point in life, when we have the potential to move forward or regress
id psychology
emphasis of classical psychoanalysis; intstincts and intrapsychic conflicts are the basic factors that shape personality
ego psychology
emphasis of contemporary psychoanalysis; emphasizes the striving of the ego for mastery and competence throughout the human life span; all stages of life, not just unconscious conflicts of childhood, must be taken into account
Freud's theory of sexuality
whether or not there is an acceptance of sexuality in the first 6 years of life provides the foundation from which later personality development is built
trust v. mistrust
infancy; if basic needs are met, infant develops trust. if basic needs are not met, an attitude of mistrust develops
autonomy v. shame/doubt
early childhood; struggle between self-reliance and self-doubt that is enhanced by exploration and experimentation and may be inhibited if parents promote dependency
initiative v. guilt
preschool age; achieve a sense of competence through ability to choose and follow through. sense of guilt if not allowed to make decisions, allow others to make decisions
industry v. inferiority
school age; setting and attaining personal goals for success. failure to do so results in feelings of inadequacy
identity v. role confusion
(erikson) adolescence; the transition from childhood to adulthood that includes a clarification of self-identity, testing limits, and breaking dependent ties. failure results in role confusion
intimacy v. isolation
(Erikson)young adult; form intimate relationships. failure results in alienation
generativity v. stagnation
(Erikson)middle age; achieving a sense of productivity in helping next generation. failure leads to stagnancy
integrity v. despair
(Erikson)later life; looking back on life, if one feels life was worthwhile with few regrets than ego integrity results. failure leaves one in despair, resentful, and with feelings of guilt and rejection
penis envy
a girl's realization that she does not have a penis, which Freud says results in jealousy because of the power associated with it
anal aggressive
children who were liberally potty-trained by parents leading to personality characterized by such things as outbursts and rebelliousness
anal retentive
the pleasure that a child takes in holding feces which, if not successfully resolve, may result in a personality characterized by the exercise of power and control
Electra complex
a daughter's unconscious desire for her father; in female phallic stage
Oedipus complex
mother is love object for the boy; male phallic stage
Carl Jung
founder of analytical psychology. He was once regarded as an heir to Freud. He contributed to a deeper understanding of personality and development, particularly during middle age
Oral aggressive
fixation that results in a life-long desire to bite on things, such as pencils, gum, and other people. They have a tendency to be verbally aggressive, argumentative, sarcastic, and so on
collective unconscious
(Jung) the deepest level of the psyche containing the accumulation of the universal and inherited experiences of the human and prehuman species
contents of the collective unconscious: most important are the persona, anima or animus, and the shadow
(Jung) the biological and psychological aspects of masculinity and femininity, which are thought to coexist in both sexes
(Jung)the mask or public face we wear to protect ourselves
(Jung) our dark side: the thoughts, feelings, and actions that we tend to disown by projecting them outward; the most dangerous and powerful of all the archetypes
Margaret Mahler
a central influence on contemporary object-relations theory, a pediatrician who emphasized the observation of children
psychological fusion
(Mahler) the state of dependency with the mother in which the development of self begins
a defensive process of keeping incompatible perceptions separate;the propensity to either idealize or completely devalue other people, to see them as either all good or all bad; a borderline symptom
self psychology
grew out of the work of Heinz Kohut. Emphasis was on how we use interpersonal relationships (self objects) to develop our own sense of self. (p.76)
object-relations theory
a form of analytic treatment that involves exploration of internal unconscious identifications and internalizations of external objects. Object relations are interpersonal relationships as they are represented intrapsychically. (p. 75)
normal infantile autism
First stage of Maher's development - The first 3-4 weeks of life; The infant is presumed to be responding more to states of physiological tension than to psychological processes. Maher believes the infant is unable to differentiate itself from its mother in many respects at this age. (p.77)
Maher's second phase - recognizable by the 3rd month and extends roughly through the 8th month. The infant has a pronounced dependency on the mother. The mother is clearly a partner and not just an interchangeable part. (p.77)
separation-Individuation process
Begins by the 4th or 5th month. During this time the child moves away from symbiotic forms of relating; child experiences separation from significant others yet still turns to them for a sense of confirmation and comfort. (p.77)
borderline personality disorder
rooted in the period of separation-individuation. People with borderline personality disorder have moved into the separation process but have been thwarted by maternal rejection of their individuation. (p.78) Borderline people are characterized by instability, irritability, self-destructive acts, impulsive anger, and extreme mood shifts.
transference relationship
The relationship in which the therapist engages in very little self-disclosure and maintains a sense of neutrality in order to allow their clients make projections onto them. These projections have their origins in unfinished and repressed situations and their analysis is the very essence of therapeutic work. (p.65)
This process consists of an exploration of unconscious material and defenses, most of which originated in early childhood.
Occurs when there is inappropriate affect, when therapists respond in irrational ways, or when they lose their objectivity in a relationship because their own conflicts are triggered. (p. 68)
free association
central technique of psychoanalytic therapy in which clients are encouraged to say whatever comes to mind, regardless of how painful, silly, trivial, illogical, or irrelevant it may be. It is one of the basic tools used to open the doors to unconscious wishes, fantasies, conflicts, and motivations.
Interpretation consists of the analyst's pointing out, explaining, and even teaching the client the meanings of behavior that is manifested in dreams, free association, resistances, and the therapeutic relationship itself. The function of interpretation is to enable the ego to assimilate new material and to speed up the process of uncovering further unconscious material (p. 71).
dream analysis
An important Psychoanalytic procedure for uncovering unconscious material and giving the client insight into some areas of unresolved problems. Freud considered dreams to be the "royal road to the unconscious". Dreams have two levels: 1) latent content and 2) Manifest content (p.71)
Latent content
one stage of dreams that consists of hidden, symbolic, and unconscious motives, wishes, and fears. Because they are so painful and threatening, the unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses that make up latent content are transformed into the more acceptable manifest content. (p. 71)
Manifest content
The dream as it appears to the dreamer. (p.71)
dream work
The process by which the latent content of a dream is transformed into the less threatening manifest content (p. 71)
A fundamental concept to the practice of psychoanalysis; Is anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the client from producing previously unconscious material. Specifically in analytic therapy it is the client's reluctance to bring to the surface of awareness unconscious material that has been repressed. (p.72)
notions of grandiosity
exaggerated sense of self-importance and a characteristic of narcissitic disorders; Mahler speculated that it may be a result of not successfully differentiating
cognitive restructuring
refuting distortions in thought and replacing with accurate ones
unfinished business
unresolved issues that emerge from the background which can manifest in unexpressed feelings
maintaining the analytic framework
refers to a whole range of procedural and stylistic factors such as the anonymity of the analyst, the consistency of meetings, and starting and ending sessions on time--maintaining these things is itself a therapeutic factor
when person does not receive appropriate gratifcation during a psychosexual stage, personality and behavior reflects the unmet need
identity crisis
(Erikson) most important conflict of development occurring first in adolescence and again in middle age where one may lose sense of personal sameness
refers to the interrelationship of various parts and the transformation and exchanges of energy in personality
narcissistic character disorder
exaggerated sense of self-importance and an exploitive attitude towards others, which serve the function of masking a frail self-concept
central figure in existential therapy, concentration camp prisoner, developed logotherapy, emphasis on finding meaning in life under all circumstances
central figure in existential therapy, concern for individual's immediate presence, therapy as journey through phenomenological (here and now, subjective) world of client; central concern of therapy is to help clients examine how they have answered life's existential questions
existential philosopher who emphasized freedom and that our values are what we choose; "I am my choices"
theologian who influenced existential therapy by emphasizing I/Thou relationships as a precursor to change
central figure in existential therapy, psychologist, emphasized the constant struggle between the security of dependence and the delights of pain and growth; it takes courage to be; one of the key figures responsible for bringing existentialism from Europe to the U.S.
Frankl's therapy which means "therapy through meaning"
the will to meaning
(Frankl) the central motivation for living; finding purpose through suffering, work, and play
the human condition
(existential) basic dimensions of the human condition are: 1) self-awareness, 2) freedom and responsibility, 3) est. identity and relationships, 4)search for meaning, 5)anxiety as part of living, 6) and awareness of death
(existential) the realizations that we are finite, we have potential for action/inaction, we choose, meaning is a discovery, anxiety is part of living, we are basically alone; the greater the awareness, the greater the freedom and our capacity to live fully
existential vacuum
(Frankl) meaninglessness in life that leads to emptiness and hollowness
freedom and responsibility
(existential) people are free to choose in shaping their destinities and must accept responsibility for directing their lives
(existential) we are the creators of our lives as a result of our own freedom to choose
courage to be
(existential) concept from theologian Tillich; taking intitiative to discover the true foundations of our being and to use its power to transcend those aspects of nonbeing that would destroy us
aloneness and isolation
(existential) the realization that we cannot depend on anyone else for our own confirmation; we need a sense of our separation
(existential) humans depend on relationships and need to have relationships based on personal fulfillment rather than deprivation
search for meaning
(existential) characteristic of humans to struggle for a sense of significance and purpose in life
(existential) lack of personal significance in a world that seems meaningless; leads to existential vacuum
(existential) commitment to creating, loving, working, and building that leads to finding meaning in life
existential anxiety
the unavoidable feelings that result of being confronted with the 'givens of existence' (death, freedom, isolation, meaninglessness)
death and nonbeing
(existential) awareness of death as a basic human condition gives significance to living
restricted existence
(existential) people who have limited awareness of themselves and how they are stuck in their problems
(existential) not constructing life around expectations of others but explicit awareness; creating a caring and genuine presence with another
existential guilt
realization that we are not what we might become; a sense of incompleteness
inauthentic existence
(existential) constructing life around expectations of others
I/Thou relationship
(Buber)as opposed to an I/it relationship, there is direct, mutual, and present interaction; essential for connection between self and spirit that leads to true dialogue
paradoxes of existence
(existential) two sides of the same coin in life that seem opposing but actually influence each other: freedom and responsibility, aloneness and relatedness, meaninglessness and meaning, death gives significance to life
(existential) we are our choices
life tasks
(adler) universal objectives for people: social task (friendships), love-marriage task (intimacy), occupational task (contribute). others: getting along with ourselves, and developing our spiritual dimension
an orientation toward the subjective world of an individual, the "here-and-now"
Individual psychology
(Adler) the individual is seen as indivisible and whole and cannot be fully known outside the contexts that have meaning in their lives
fictional finalism
(adler) an imagined central goal that guides a person's behavior; aka guiding self ideal or goal of perfection
(Adler) an individual's core beliefs and assumptions through which the person organizes his or her reality and finds meaning in life events; the connecting theme that unifies all our actions
social interest
(adler) striving for a better future for humanity; as it develops, inferiority diminishes
community feeling
(Adler) sense of social connectedness that impacts happiness and success
Birth order
(Adler) person's interpretation of his or her place in the family that relates to how they interact in the world as adults; oldest, second, middle, youngest, only
(adler) main technique of therapy that helps build courage and confidence in clients
family constellation
(adler) assessing an individual's parents, siblings, and others who lived in their home to get a picture of early social world
early recollections
(adler)remembering single incidents from childhood that provide a picture of how we see ourselves and others and our anticipations for the future
private logic
(adler) concepts about self, others, and life that constitute the philosophy on which an indivdual's lifestyle is based
Four central objectives of Adlerian therapy
1) establish proper relationship (collaborative), 2) explore psychological dynamics of client (assessment), 3) encourage self-understanding (insight into purpose), 4) help client make new choices (reorientation and reeducation
subjective interview
(adler) treating client as expert in his or her life and helping the client to tell his or her story in order to extract patterns in the person's life
The Question
(adlerian) How would your life be different, and what would you do differently, if you did not have this symptom or problem?
objective interview
(adler) discover info on how problems began, precipitating events, medical history, social history, reasons for choosing therapy, person's coping with life tasks, and lifestyle assessment
lifestyle assessment
(adler) seeking a holistic narrative of the person's life, to make sense of the way the person copes with life tasks, and to uncover private logic
personality priorities
(adler) people tend to use these as pathways for relating to others and attaining significance: the four common personality priorities: 1)seeking superiority,2) control, 3)comfort, 4)to please
basic mistakes
(adler) overgeneralizations, false or impossible goals, misperceptions of life and its demands, minimization or denial of worth, faulty values that adlerians seek to correct in therapy
inferiority feelings
(adler) normal condition of all people and source of all human striving for superiority
(adler) striving to move from a perceived lower position to a perceived higher position as a result of feelings of inferiority
Teleological explanation of behavior
Motivation as a matter of moving towards the future, rather than being driven, mechanistically, by the past. We are drawn towards our goals, our purposes, our ideals
(adler) community feeling
People make up for their deficiencies in some way
Basic inferiority
a normal feeling of inferiority, which can act as an incentive for achievement
Inferiority complex
an advanced state of discouragement, often resulting in a retreat from difficulties.
the idea that all the properties of a given system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. The individual must be understood within the larger wholes of society (Adler)
The encouragement process
(Adler) it is central to all phases of counseling and therapy, encouragement literally "means to build courage" – courage develops when people become aware of their strengths, when they feel they belong and are not alone, and when they have a sense of hope and can see new possibilities for themselves and their daily living
actualizing tendency
(PC) striving towards realization, fulfillment, autonomy, self-determination, and perfection; the internal source of healing humans possess
(PC) 1)openness to experience, 2)trust in self, 3)internal source of evaluation, 4)and a willingness to continue growing
(PC) a core thereapeutic attitude that is genuine, integrated, and authentic
unconditional positive regard
(PC) core therapeutic attitude of acceptance and caring w/o evaluation/stipulations
(PC) core therapeutic attitude of understanding and being sensitive to client's experience and feelings on interpersonal, cognitive, and affective level
emphasis on self-directing ability of people; appropriate conditions will lead to natural growth
psychoanalytic therapy
largely based on insight, unconscious motivation, and reconstruction of the personality
Adlerian therapy
focus on meaning, goals, purposeful bx, conscious action, belonging, and social interest
existential therapy
concern for what it means to be fully human and focus is on the themes of the human condition as well as on the subjective world of the person
person-centered therapy
assumes that clients have the capacity for self-direction without active intervention and direction on the therapist's part
personal characteristics of an effective counselor
have an identity, respect themselves, recognize and accept their power, open to change, making choices to shape life, feel alive, are authentic, have sense of humor, make mistakes and admit them, generally live in the present, appreciate culture, sincere about welfare of others, involved in work and derive meaning from it, maintain healthy boundaries
issues faced by beginning therapists
anxiety, disclosure, avoiding perfectionism, being honest about limitations, understanding silence, dealing with demands from clients, dealing with clients who lack commitment, tolerating ambiguity, avoiding losing ourselves in our clients, developing a sense of humor, sharing responsibility with the client, declining to give advice, defining your role as a counselor, learning to use techniques appropriately, developing your own style, staying alive as a person and a professional
the analysis and explanation of a client's problems
informed consent
general goals of counseling, responsibilities of counselor/client,limitations and expectations of confidentiality, legal parameters that could define the relationship, qualifications and background of the practitioner, fees involved, services client can expect, and approximate length of process
in general: it must be broken when it becomes clear that clients might do serious harm to self or others; legal requirement to break confidentiality in cases of child abuse, abuse of the elderly, and of dependent adults
dual relationships
refrain from entering in multiple relationship if it could reasonably be expected to impair objectivity, competence, or effectiveness in performing funcions or risk harm to other person.