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61 Cards in this Set

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Personality
“enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts.”
Temperament
or the inborn personality characteristics that influence an individual’s manner of reacting to the environment, and ultimately one’s developmental progression.
Id
Locus of instinctual drives—the “pleasure principle.” Present at birth, it endows the infant with instinctual drives that seek to satisfy needs and achieve immediate gratification. Impulsive and may be irrational.
Ego
rational self or the “reality principle,” begins to develop between the ages of 4 and 6 months. The ego experiences the reality of the external world, adapts to it, and responds to it. A primary function of the ego is one of mediator; that is, to maintain harmony among the external world, the id, and the superego.
Superego
“perfection principle” Develops between 3 and 6 years internalizes the values and morals set forth by primary caregivers. Derived out of a system of rewards and punishments, the superego is composed of two major components: the ego-ideal and the con-science.
Libido
Psychic energy or the drive to fulfill basic physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex
Symbiosis
“psychic fusion” of mother and child – child views self as an extension of the mother but with developing awareness that it is she who fulfills his or her every need. (1-5 months) – Mahler.
Cognitive development
Human intelligence is an extension of biological adaptation, or one’s ability to adapt psychologically to the environment.
Cognitive maturity
The capability to perform all mental operations needed for adulthood, in middle to late adolescence.
Psychodynamic nursing
being able to understand one’s own behavior, to help others identify felt difficulties, and to apply principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience.
Counselor
listens as the client reviews feelings related to difficulties he or she is experiencing in any aspect of life.
Technical expert
– understands various professional devices and possesses the clinical skills necessary to perform the interventions that are in the best interest of the client.
Surrogate
serves as a substitute figure for another
2. Identify the relevance of knowledge associated with personality development to nursing in the psychiatric/mental health setting.
Nurses must have a basic knowledge of human personality development to understand maladaptive behavioral responses commonly seen in psychiatric clients. Developmental theories identify behaviors associated with various stages through which individuals pass, thereby specifying what is appropriate or inappropriate at each developmental level.
Psychoanalytical theory was developed by
Freud
Oral stage:
birth to 18 months – directed by the id, and the goal is immediate gratification of needs such as sucking chewing and biting. Psychoanalytical theory-Freud
None
Anal stage:
18months -3years – gaining independence and control, with particular focus on the excretory function. Psychoanalytical theory-Freud
None
Anal stage
18months -3years – gaining independence and control, with particular focus on the excretory function. Psychoanalytical theory-Freud
None
Phallic Stage
3-6years – focus of energy shifts to the genital area. Discovery of differences between genders result in heightened interest in the sexuality of self and others. Psychoanalytical theory-Freud
None
Latency Stage
6-12 years – shift form egocentrism to more interest in group activities, learning, and socialization with peers. Psychoanalytical theory-Freud
None
Genital Sage
13-20 years – Maturing of the genital organs results in a reawakening of the libidinal drive. Focus of relationships with members of the opposite sex in preparations for selecting a mate. Psychoanalytical theory-Freud
None
Interpersonal theory was developed by
Sullivan
None
Infancy
Birth to 18 months – gratification of needs accomplished through activity associated with the mouth, such as crying, nursing, and thumb sucking. Interpersonal theory-Sullivan
None
Childhood
18 Months to 6 years – learns that interference with fulfillment of personal wishes and desires may result in delayed gratification. Interpersonal theory-Sullivan
None
Juvenile
6-9 years – formation of satisfactory relationships within peer groups. Interpersonal theory-Sullivan
None
Preadolescence
9-12 years – developing relationships with persons of the same sex. Interpersonal theory-Sullivan
None
Early Adolescence
12-14 years – developing a sense of identity that is separate and independent from the parents. Interpersonal theory-Sullivan
None
Late Adolescence
14-21 years – attempting to achieve interdependence within the society and the formation of a lasting, intimate relationship with a selected member of the opposite sex. Interpersonal theory-Sullivan
None
Theory of psychosocial development was developed by
Erikson
Trust vs mistrust
brith -18months – Trust in mothering figure. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt
18months-3years – self-control and independence. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Initiative Vs. Guilt
3-6years – develop a sense of purpose ability to initiate and direct one’s own activities. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Industry Vs. Inferiority
6-12 years – sense of self confidence by learning, competing, performing successfully, and receiving recognition from significant others, peers and acquaintances. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Identity Vs role confusion
12-20 years – integrate the tasks mastered in the previous stages into a secure sense of self. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Intimacy Vs. Isolation
20 -30 years – form an intense lasting relationships or a commitment to another person, a cause, an institution, or a creative effort. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Gererativity Vs. Stagnation
30-60 years - achieving a positive sense of self. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Ego Integrity Vs. Despair
60-death – review one’s life and derive meaning from both positive and negative events, while. Theory of psychosocial development-Erikson
None
Theory of object relations development
Mahler
object relations Phase I
The Autistic Phase
birth to 1month – infant exists in a half-sleeping, half awake state and does not perceive the existence of other people or an external environment.
None
object relations Phase II
The symbiotic Phase
1-5months – child views the self as an extension of the mother, but with a developing awareness that it is she who fulfills his or her every need.
None
object relations Phase III
Separation-Individuation
5-36months – physical and psychological attainment of a sense of personal distinction from the mothering figure.
None
object relations subphase 1
differentiation
5-10months – initial physical movements away from the mothering figure.
None
object relations Subphase 2
practicing
10-16monhts – advanced locomoter functioning, the child experiences feelings of exhilaration from increased independence.
None
object relations Subphase 3
Rapprochment
Rapprochment 16-24months – is extremely critical to the child
None
object relations Subphase 4
Consolidation
24-36months – definite individuality and sense of separateness of self are established.
None
Cognitive development theory
Piaget
Stage 1
Sensorimotor
birth to 2years – child is concerned only with satisfying basic needs and comforts. Cognitive development theory-Piaget
Stage 2
Preoperational
2-6years – characterized by egocentrism,. Personal experiences are thought to be universal, and the child is unable to accept the differing viewpoints of others. Cognitive development theory-Piaget
None
Stage 3
Concrete Operations
6-12years – the ability to apply logic to thinking begins in this stage but concreteness still predominates.
Cognitive development theory-Piaget
None
Stage 4
Formal Operationas
12-15years – individual is able to think and reason in abstract terms. Cognitive development theory-Piaget
None
Theory of moral development
Kohlberg
Level I
Preconventional Level
Preconventional Level 4-10 years
None
Stage 1
Punishment and obedience orientation
Punishment and obedience orientation – punish and obedience orientation state the individual is responsive to cultural guidelines of good and bad and of right and wrong but primarily in terms of the known related consequences .
None
Stage 2
Instrumental relativist orientation
Instrumental relativist orientation – guided by egocentrism and concern for self.
None
Level II
Conventional Level
Conventional Level 10-13years
None
Stage 3
Interpersoanl Concordance orientation
Interpersoanl Concordance orientation – expectations of others
None
Stage 4
Law and order orientation
Law and order orientation – there is a personal respect for authority. Rules and laws are required and override personal principles and group mores.
None
Level III
Postconventional
Postconventional Level
None
Stage 5
Social Contract Legalistic orientation
Social Contract Legalistic orientation – developed a system of values and principles that determine fro them what is right or wrong
None
Stage 6
Universal Ethical Principle orientation
Universal Ethical Principle orientation – directed by internalized principles of honor, justice and respect of human dignity.
None
A nursing model of interpersonal development (4 stages)
Peplau Learning to count on others, Learning to delay satisfaction, Identifying oneself, and Developing skills in participation.