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72 Cards in this Set

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Platonic thought
Thought derived from Plato. This is one of the dominant thought processes of the JEws.
How was Christianity started?
Christianity started by a group of peopke who thought Jesus was the messiah. They went out on an evangelic mission and encountered Hellenis and Platonic thought. Because of persecution the Jews were scattered around the globe. They shared their understanding with these other people who have different views.
Allegory of the cave is written where?
Is written in the Republic.
The Republic
The Republic is Plato's understanding of the state. It is his philosophy, he believes these should be led by philosopher kings who can form state policies. Philosopher king would also be taught in Plato's political philosophy.
Allegory of the cave,
Plato realizes humanity can think, speak, and go about their business in the way of forms. He likens people not educated in the forms as trapped in the cave. Within this cave, there is a fire burning toward the entrance. Also an exit to the cave with small amount of light coming in. The fire reflects the back wall of the cave and unable to free themselves are individuals who can't move or see anything but what is reflected on the back wall of the cave between them and the fire there is a path. Individuals walk along the path carrying different items. Because of these objects there is a shaddow cast on the wall. Those in the cave can hear only echos of the person's voices. They've been held captive and have no conception of any other reality than the one they currently see.
What is the reality of those in the cave?
Suppose the person on the path has a book. One person speaks to the other in reference to the book. The trapped people assume what they are referring to is the shadow. While that is their assumption, they are mistaken. The mistaken words they use to refer to a reality that is beyond their perception.
What would happen if the trapped were set free?
If the individuals were free and able to turn and look at the people and things it would be difficult for them to deal with change in the light and in perception because eveything they'd seen was a shadow of something else. Plato believes they can move toward a recognition of the real object. The thing itself is within their grasp.
Eternal forms kind of explanaton
These are what Plato thinks are real. all the things we see in shadow are unreal because they are not the real thing. Both are tables both appear different. Plato says that table as a form isn't defined by if it's round or square or if 2 legs or 4 legs but rather those are the objects of perception. The thing in itself exists in a different form. Our knowledge can move us to an understanding of our being.
Eternal forms and what they relate to:
DO not relate to perceptions. Human being is the eternal form. Brown hair, white or black skin, short or tall are all perceptions of the eternal form.
What is true of eternal forms?
Eternal forms we can never see. But knowledge of these forms can grow inside of us.
Idealism
Idealism suggests a predisposition to our knowing things in themselves. These things can be known to us even though we've never experienced them. Plato calls this recollection.
Plato's thoughts in relation to idealism
Plato doesn't ever use the word idealism. He thinks we can actually know the thing in itself using the power of recollection to the real things that cast those shadows. The real things are the forms we want to acquaint ourselves with. The real world which is external forms. It is a kind of knowing that is not proposition. There is a knowing beyond the shadows what are the forms and what are they like?
Characteristics of the forms
Unchangeable- a form will never be anything other than what it is.
eternal - they do not come and go.
intelligible not perceptible-perceptions of human beings would be green eyes, height, weight.
Divine
Incorporeal-form of table you couldn't tap on it and say it's hard. It's beyond that.
Unqualified-They are unquantifiably what their instances are only with qualifications. You are a human being, but=qualifiably you were bron on this date, you have blue eues. These characteristics are what limit you. The form human being is not limited in this way.
What did the Greeks think about God?
The Greeks thought that if God was going to be God, then he is unqualified and intelligible but not perceptible. He meets all of the above qualifications. God has no beginning and has no end. To them this God has no body and no beginning and no end. This Jewish Gospel gets translated by Greeks and what they say about God in this light.
Difference between how the Greeks and Jews think about/refer to God.
The Jews say things like the Lord is my shepherd. The Greeks say omnipotent and almighty, all knowing ect. They try to understand being itself the eternal form.
What does Plato think about the allegory of the cave?
When we talk about allegory of the cave, there are those who think Plato thinks this is all we can know. This is not true. He thinks maybe they could find their way out. It'd be long and difficult but they could do it. We have the capacity he calls recollection. He says they can be rediscovered in the knowledge of the forms.
Who was St. Augustine? Mini Bio of his life:
Most important person of patristic period. Lived 354-430. Born in north African village of Tegaste which is located in Lybia. He and several others are African. These Africans made significant contributions to Christianity. Racism as we have experienced it was not a part of that period so they were able to hold positions in the early Church. His mother Monica was a Christian. It doesn't seem his father was as influential in his life. AS a young man, he was raised Christian but threw that out and went to Carthage where he studied rhetoric. In that day and age rhetoric was highly educated and studied broadly in philosophy, politics ect. He's highly eduated for his time. As he grows and matures, he becomes a manacheian.
MAnacheian
Followers of Manni a 3rd century thinker.
Neoplatonism
Neo in front of a word means new. IT is a new study of platonism.
Augustine's unrest.
Thgough all of his trials he is never really at peace with himself as a manacheian. there are 2 causes for his unrest.
1. AS a child he and his friend stole pears from the neighbors tree. They weren't hungry, they just wanted to do it because they knew it was wrong and they wanted to do something wrong. They didn't know what to do with them so they fed them to swans. He remembers this experience. He wonders why we enjoy doing something we shouldn't do.
2. While in carthage he has a mistress whom he never marries but he is fully aware of his sexual being with. He realizes how powerful the urge is and he gives it free reign. For him the issue isn't just a matter of sexuality. He realizes his cravings and realizes they come from some place inside his being which is not controlled by his rational ordering and it troubles him. He thinks he should be able ton control this with his mind but he can't and it troubles him. It's not guilt over sex but rather why he cannot control his urges which worries him. He wasn't out of control though he loved physical pleasure. But he questioned why he couln't control it.
Augustine's paradigm
Becomes the model for all similar events. He wants to know what's wrong with human nature which makes us fall prey to doing these things which we know we shouldn't do. It's not only the guilt but the paradigm he develops for life.
What doctrine is he part founder of?
He is part of the founder of the doctrine of original sin. He goes back to the pears everytime he has an urge for food or power or money or women. He struggles with these ugres. His mother always encourages him to come back to Christianity.
What's Monica's role in the conversion of Augustine?
Monica sends him to talk to Ambrose. Always encourages him to return to Christiantiy.
What happened to Augustine to cause his conversion?
After talking to Ambrose, Augustine was in a garden his soul in distress. There are children singing, "Take up and read". He believes God is telling him to take up the new Testament. So he opens to Romans and reads, "Not in lysentiousness, but put on Lord and do not let the flesh satisfy its desires". This leads to his conversion. This leads toward spiritual peace he has been looking for. He leaves his mistress and takes his son to Africa. On the way back his son dies. He prepares to lead a monastic life and settles down in Hippo. The people persuade him to be ordained instead.
Orthodoxy
Right teaching or right belief.
Heresy
Teachings which differ from what the Church says is right.
Gnostic
From Greek word gnosis meaning knowledge. There are lots of different gnostics. There are alot of them but most are very different. Manni, whom Augustine followed was a Gnostic. He is one of many groups considered Gnostic. They believe all people are saved by a seceret hidden wisdom. Very focuzed on the in group. You either have it or you don't have it. Very secretive not evengelical. They didn't write much down since they were secretive. They wil only accept you if they believe you have the spark. There aren't alot of Gnostic texts so we don't know alot about them.
What do we know about Gnostics?
1. Secret hidden wisdom-That has an appeal. You're one of the select. The idea that you are saved but not everyone is. They believed in 2 gods. The god of light and darkness. They're dualists. 2 gods. Anything with physical form is evil. Your body is evil. These 2 gods had a fight. When they fought pieces of the light God were scattered. The dark God put each piece in the body of ppl. You don't like your body you want to die so your spark will be absorbed back into the god of light. Many Gnostics think since the flesh will die and the body will be free I may as well enjoy pleasure in life many others think we need to deny the flesh for their divinity to shine more brightly.
If matter and creation are evil as the Gnostics suggest what does that say about God?
If matter and creation are evil and the Gnostics see the bible they see God who made the earth as the God of matter. They see those God who they have external with as God of light.
Augustine says what about Gnosticism and Christianity?
Augustine says there are BIG differences between Gnosticism and Christianity. He says there is 1 God not 2. Only 1. That is the God of creation. God created everything and it is good. The flesh is good. We may do things with the flesh that are not good, but the flesh in itself is good. He insists God is fully God and fully human. In his humanity there is nothing evil. He had to become man to save us. Augustine defends incarnation.
what happens in 325
Council of Nicea
Council of NIcea
325. Constantine thinks Christianity is a valuable tool to unite the empire. Everyone has different beliefs about Christianity. Christians have different beliefs. Constantine wants it to be a uniting factor so he gathers the bishops and told them they have to affirm a single view so Christians will stop fighting amongst themselves.
Homoosious
Of the same substance. They wanted to describe the substance of Christ. He is fully God and Fully human. This is important because he will not be whisked away by the sun God.
What can the Greeks know?
The Greeks can only know what is like what they already know. So we have to have God translated into a way that they can apprehend such as god is human.
What does Augustine argue?
Augustine argues monotheism and creation and everything s good. He argues for homoosious. He preserves Christianity from the Gnostics and understands who they are as Christians and who others are as Gnostics.
What happened to missionaries?
When the missionaries went out, they were Christians. There were multiple religions everywhere. Everywhere they went they would encounter people who were trying to win over multiple groups with innumerable differences. The Church has to decide whaty they believe and what do they want to teach.
epistemology
The study of how we know what we know.
gnosis
greek word for knowledge.
Main disagreement between Gnostics and Christians
Gnostics were dualists who believe in 2 gods. Christians are monotheists.
Historical setting from 284-305
Roman Emperor Diocletian. The energy of the empire is in the east. The west-western Europe is in turmoil. Roman Empire is struggling to maintain control. Diocletian comes to power placed there by the Roman Army. There are pressures. The gereral becomes the Roman Emperor. Believes way to regain order is to crach down. North Africa is a great area of unrest. He begins persecution of Christians esp those in Northern Africa. When they begin persecution they do so b/c they wanted to pledge their loyalty and alliance to the empire. In those days, the Emperor thought of themself as a deity so to pledge alliegance to the Emperor would be against the monotheist belief of Christians. Sometimes the emperor wanted to copy off the scrpitures and/or to attend a service. Alot of the time people did what the emperor wanted.
Lapsed
Alot of the people did give in and those people were lapsed Christians during this time.
Martyrs
Those persecuted.
Felix
Lapsed Christian from Aptunga. He gave in in some way to the persecution and he came back after the persecution and wanted to know what he had to do to come back. He came back and was restored. In 311 he participates in consecration of bishop of Carthage. The Bishop was Caecilian.
Problem with Cecilian as Bishop
Immediately there's a group of ppl who say he's not a pure bishop because felix is the one who participated. These people gathered and elected someone named Donatus. He was elected to lead the group of protesting group. The Donatists formed in response to Felix. They are referred to as rigorists and they believe the Church needs to be pure and the church is only pure when lead by pure church membners. Says true Christians must resist even during time of persecution.
Donatists and Romans
Romans believe Felix is restored and accept Cecilian. Donatists take their case to the Bishop of Rome in these days, the Pope who has papal infallability. This predates papal infallability. This is before the Pope but they try to appeal to him anyway. The emperor rejects donatists. They are still sure they are right so they appeal to the emperor. Who is now Constantine. Constantine, before becoming emperor, was preparing for battle. The night before the battle Constantine had a dream. The shield of the Roman army has a shield which bears the words "in his name you will conquer". There's alot of debate about Constantine's early Christinaity. In 313 he issues the Edict of Milan it doesn't make Christianity the official religion but it does make it legal to be Christians. This ends the early persecution. COnstantine thinks Christianity can bring peace to tthe emprie. When the Donatists appeal to him, rather than decide who's right and wrong he calls a synod. All the bishops gather together to hear the argument. The bishops decide that Cecilian is the proper emperor.
What is Constatintine's Role in the Donatist debate?
Constantine, before becoming emperor, was preparing for battle. The night before the battle Constantine had a dream. The shield of the Roman army has a shield which bears the words "in his name you will conquer". There's alot of debate about Constantine's early Christinaity. In 313 he issues the Edict of Milan it doesn't make Christianity the official religion but it does make it legal to be Christians. This ends the early persecution. COnstantine thinks Christianity can bring peace to tthe emprie. When the Donatists appeal to him, rather than decide who's right and wrong he calls a synod. All the bishops gather together to hear the argument. The bishops decide that Cecilian is the proper emperor.
Donatists views after talking to Constantine
316-321 Donatists still think they are right. Constantine sends soldiers to North Africa to wipe out Donatists. Rome's empire does not win this battle. The Donatists resent the intrusion and by 321 Constantine pulls the soldiers out of Africa. Donatists have persisted for a long time. Augustine was born in 354. This conflict continued until he was an adult. When he returns to Hippo late in life the controversy has now continued for generations. There's a long history of hatred and anamosity. Donatists are the majority of north Africa. Donatist views continue long after Donatus and Caecilian are dead.
Augustine's role in the Donatist controversy.
Augustine bears an inability to control cravings and desires and realizes there's a part of himself he cannot control. Every individual in what sense can we say we are pure if we always have a part of ourselves which is not pure? This is the beginning of the doctrine of original sin. He questions if the church can be pure if no individual is truely pure within himself. Also he understands the nature of the Church.
Islam is spread
Partly by military conquest and partly by teachings.
What is the problem of pure church and spreading?
Bishops ordain priests. If the bishop doesn't have the autorhity necessary then all of those who they ordained are not really priests. If those priests aren't really priests all the sacraments they conferred are invalid. Then all those people aren't true Christians and they all went to Hell.
Parable
Story or narrative which is an extension of metaphor, analogy, or simile which furthers understanding. Augustine takes the wheat parable and applies it. The pure ppl are the wehat. The impure are the weeds. Who can tell the difference? Only the master of the field can make the judgement call. Understands the Church is a mixed body. He tells the rigorists its up to GOd to determine the wheat from the weeds and we don't know the difference or have that authority only God can do this. He is addressing the sacraments
What question does augustine ask the rigorists?
How do you tell who is pure? How are you able to do this?
Does the validity of the scarament depend on who carries it out?
NO
What 2 things are necessary for valid sacraments
1. Appropriate matter- right outward symbol has to be present. Baptism requires water.
2. Right order- The correct words/proper order has to be there. It's not in the person, it's the grace of God that makes the sacrament. Augustine gives the Church the doctrine of the sacraments and is clarifying what the Church means when they talk about sacraments.
By the time Augustine comes along what is the situation regarding sacraments?
The schism of the Church is the controversy which has reigned for generations. This leaves heresy of hatred during time Augustine is the Bishop of Hippo.
What are the 5 criteria for a just war?
1. proper authority
2. goal is to restore peace and justice
3. motivated by love and not greed or desire for power
4. has reasonable chance of success
5. one can see its benefit to society
Anyone who refers to a just war...
...has its origins in Augustine. Nobody prior to this outlined a set of criteria more powerful than the govt. He says there's a source of authority greater than the gocernment.
Pelagius
Born in 354-430. British monk. Known for his stirring oratory and persuasive teaching. He'd be one of those hellfire evangelist types today. He was sure that freewill was still functional and reliable in human beings. In any given moment, under any condition we are free not to sin. He asks what happened to human kind after Adam and Eve sinned. He says nothing really happened. We just now have a bad example. WE always had a good example in Jesus and we can overcome the bad example by modeling the good example of Jesus. He believes through the holy spirit we receive encouragement which ullows us to choose the god. Fear can also spur us to do the good as we fear eternal damnation.
Asetic
Many Christians who believe our physical bodies are at odds with our nature we need to suppress the desires of the flesh and or pummel the flesh to become more spiritual. Pelagius thought that would be helpful. Catholics give things up for Lent. This is a mild asetic practice. Everytime you want it you focus on spiritual growth. You deny the flesh to build the spirit. There are mild forms of this commonly practiced and then there are forms which are really extreme.
What happens as a result of Adam and Eve's sin?
Pelagius says all it does is give us a bad example and means we have to try hatd to good. He wants us to do what we should do. Augustine says the effect of original sin occurs.
What does Pelaguis preach?
We were created by god. WE have freewill. We CAN do better TRY harder with a little encouragement form the holy spirit. You are FREE NOT to sin. so quit.
Augustine's response to Pelagius
With this Question Augustine questions this theory based on his experience of stealing pears and lust. There were always cravings. He could not rid himself of cravings even though he possessed free will. HE says FREE WILL is LIMITED. In the sin of Adam, humankind became infected with evil. This is the doctrine of original sin. Effects of original sin passed down to us in the very act of conception. Nothing wrong with a man and woman who are married having sex. But Augustine thinks there's always an element of self lust called concupiense. It is that which passes on the original sin generation through generation. Therefore since everyone was conceived this way, everyone has original sin. He says we are unable to save ourselves. For Augustine, grace becomes god doing for human beings what they cannot do for themselves.
Imago-dei
Image of God. Augustine says this is damaged by original sin.
Grace
God's unmerited love toward us which flows from his nature. It is not in our power to have earned or deserved it. This is undeserved. We depend utterly on the grace of God.
Predestination
Augustine is pushed to accept doctrine of predestination or election. There are those predestined to salvation (damnation). Why did he affirm this?
Why did Augustine affirm the doctrine of predestination?
He understands all of us are elected by it. It has damaged all of us beyond our ability to fix with good examples, practices of encouragement. We are utterly dependant on God's grace. Everything God wants to happen does happen. IF freewill cannot fix us then God's grace is total. And if we are dependant on God, everything that happens is God's will so it must be that God chose some for salvation and some for damnation.
Sovreignty
Everything happens becuase of GOd. Everything god wants to happen does happen.
Calvin
Founder of presyperterians. The greatest debates still center around predestination.
Prevenience
Out of God's grace he has acted in our life before we even knew it so we're in a better place to use our free will.
Why do the pagans think caused the fall of rome?
The Pagans say that if they had stuck with the pagan beliefs, pagans believed in Roman Pantheon of Gods/goddesses. Downfall they say is because the Christains ultimate loyalty is to the church instead of emperor. If we went back everything would be fine and the fall of rome wouldn't have occurred. Augustine says NO.
What does Augustine say to the Pagans who say Rome fell because the Christians worship God?
Augustine writes 'City of God' book. He writes to book to say there are 2 realities. City of man and city of God. City of man - civil political system is ruled by the impulses. Greed, cravings of individuals so it's always an effort to control those impulses. There are always competing ideas in this type of society. This city will always be in the process of rising and falling based on who is in power. The City of God is ruled by love and rules of Christ. This may not seem to have the upper hand but they will always endure. The city of God will last forever. Christianity works for a different end than civil culture. this sets the tone for interactions between church and state.
4 controversies Augustine is involved in
1. Gnostics
2. Donatists
3. Phlagians
4. Pagans