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63 Cards in this Set

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Who has the financial and managerial tasks of making productions available to the public. They do not have control of artistic decisions but may influence artistic decisions through financial considerations
Who's responsibility is to do the following: the group or organization raises the necessary capital. To seek financial backing from investors. Partnerships or corporations are formed to limit financial liability
Whose job is it to negotiate contracts. They may deal with as many as 11 different unions
Whose job is it to administer payroll, keep financial records, report to investors
Whose responsibilities are less clearly defined in other situations. Professional resident companies (not-for-profit). The artistic director is concerned with the artistic effectiveness and quality. The managing director / producing director is concerned with financing and marketing. The board of directors may assist in raising funds and acquiring grants and donations
In community theatres the organization is the ___. Volunteers carry out many of the duties. The organization typically has officers and a board of directors.
In educational theatre the ___’s functions may be divided among several persons. The school (who usually owns the space). The department chair or director of theatre. The business manager (if one exists). The director of each play.
Who deals with Professional organizations may deal directly with living authors or their agents in negotiating arrangements to produce plays. Sometimes rights are handled through play agencies. Dramatists Play Service
Who is concerned with the artistic aspects of production: Interprets the script and forms a production concept or approach. Casts and rehearses the performers. Works with the designers. Integrates all of the elements into a finished production
The starting point for most productions is a ___
Who asks these questions? 1.What is the basic story? 2. If the play is foreign, what translation is best suited to the production? 3. How might the play’s events and their arrangement affect a live audience? 4. Should portions of the script be cut? 5. Should certain scenes be transposed? 6. What is the significance of the play’s time and setting? 7. Should these be altered?
The director
What are these statements 1. The play’s structural pattern 2. The play’s units or beats 3. Their own emotional reactions or images certain moments inspire. 4. The play’s through-line or spine. 5. Characters and their individual functions in the play. 6. Characters and the challenges and opportunities they pose for the actors. 7. Scenic, lighting, sound, and costume demands.
Form of analysis
What is this called a. Overall thrust b. Themes c. Point of view d. Implications.
line or spine
What two people typically consult sources beyond the script. 1. The cultural environment depicted in the play 2. The context from which the script emerged 3. Critiques and reviews of prior productions.
director or dramaturg if one exsists
___ may work directly with a playwright on a new script
Directors or Dramaturg
The ___ then decides upon an interpretation that accounts for the significance of the play’s dramatic action and defines the focus of the production. 1. This may be distilled into a production concept. 2. A production concept serves as an organizational tool for the production team.
What is 1. Literal, or the page-to-stage approach. a. Produced as close to the playwright’s intentions as possible 2. Translation approach
approach to directing
Produced to capture the spirit of the script.
approach to directing
1. Directors search for something to define the focus or production concept
a. Metaphor i. Nikolai Okhlopkov – Hamlet – the world is a prison b. Analogy i. Orson Welles – Macbeth – Set in Haiti (voodoo treated as analogous to witchcraft). c. Central Motif
i. Peter Brook – A Midsummer Night’s Dream – the potentials and dangers of love. d. Conventions from another form. i. Ariane Mnouchkine – Asian theatre conventions applied to Shakespearean plays.
translation approach to directing
The ___ approach assumes that the audience may more fully grasp the script’s significance through choices that reveal fundamental patterns of meaning possibly hidden beneath the script’s surface detail.
1. The auteur approach – treats the script as raw material to be reshaped for the director’s own purposes a. The director is considered the principal creative force – virtually eliminates the playwright.
less emphasis on script approach to directing
Some directors also serve as their own ___, but that is unusual. The director usually meets as early as possible with the ___.
Who aretypically concerned with several questions when reviewing preliminary designs: 1. Do the designs adequately project the production concept? 2. Do they fit the play’s action, mood, theme, and style? 3. How do the designs for each aspect complement and support each other? 4. Will scenic and costume pieces functionally serve the uses the director has planned for the production’s staging? 5. If costume or scenery changes must occur during performance, will the proposed designs permit these changes without undue delays? 6. Can the designs be achieved within the production’s budget, personnel and time constraints?
1. Open call a. Usually even “open” calls restrict access in some way B. Many professional producing organizations depend on casting directors to provide the director with prescreened candidates
C. Some directors ask performers to present previously prepared audition material 1. Two short, contrasting monologues unrelated to the play being cast 2. Sometimes actors are able to study the script before they audition 3. Sometimes actors are asked to read from unfamiliar material a. “Cold readings”
methods of auditioning
controversial issue today, the term implies casting performers in roles for which in the past they might not traditionally have been considered
nontraditional casting
ignoring race or ethnicity and to cast solely on the basis of talent and suitability to a role • Questioned when it leads to mixed-race families or denies social realities • Controversial in that it shifts the question of minority under-representation away from the failure of new plays to include minority characters • Others charge that it allows cultural differences to be ignored
Colorblind casting
The director works to mesh the actors with their roles and the dramatic action a. Supervises without dictating b. Guides the actors’ responses with tact and understanding B. Throughout the rehearsal process the director assesses the actors’ work and makes suggestions for improvements
Working with actors
What are the entire resources of the theatre?
1. The script 2. The actors 3. The stage space 4. Scenery, properties, costumes, makeup, lighting and sound
1. Stage images convey the situation, emotional content and character relationships 2. Directors use various devices of visual composition to create emphasis and subordination
Each moment creates an image that sends a message to the audience
a. Height b. Placement of actors within the stage space c. Spatial relationships d. Contrast e. Visual focus f. Costume g. Lighting h. Scenery
means of controlling emphasis
C. When one moves from the proscenium to the thrust or arena stage, the means to create visual emphasis are more ___.
The way devices for achieving emphasis are used depends greatly upon the stage setting, which can create ____
Compositional pattern
What does this describe 1. Gives emphasis 2. Characterizes 3. Clarifies situation 4. Builds scenes to a climax, provides contrast and establishes tempo 5. Can be indicative of dramatic type or style
What are 3 main types of movement?
1. From place to place – the broadest type 2. Gesture 3. Business
What are some examples of cue movement from the script?
Character relationships and emotional connotations are among the most common motivators of movement
What are gesture, facial expression and bodily attitude?
Body language
What can provide a subtle means of gaining emphasis and can convey basic psychological traits
What conveys emotional attitudes or immediate reactions?
Bodily attitude and facial expression
What director's concerns are these: a. The dialogue should be audible and comprehensible to the entire audience b. The performers’ vocal qualities should be appropriate to their characters c. The inflectional pattern and volume of the performers should be not only appropriate to their characters, but also to specific situations and the meanings of their lines d. The tempo and rhythm of the performers’ dialogue should vary appropriately in accordance with the changing dynamics of the action
voice and speech
A. Rehearsals can seldom be held under conditions approximating those of performance
1. The director and performers must rely heavily on imagination
Rehearsing the play
B. The typical rehearsal space is a large room 1. A ground plan of the set is outlined with tape or paint on the floor 2. Rehearsal furniture and improvised doors and levels are provided 3. Rehearsal properties and garments are often provided
Rehearsing the play
C.In order to plan rehearsals effectively, the director needs to know how much time is available 1. The director ascertains the approximate number of hours available and plans a schedule to utilize the time to maximum advantage 2. The director divides the schedule into progressive phases
Rehearsing the play
D. Before beginning rehearsals of the play, some directors devote time to group activities
Rehearsing the play
E. The first phase of rehearsal is usually devoted to reading and discussing the script (table read or first read-through) 1. Performers gain a basic understanding of their roles 2. The director clarifies the main objectives
Rehearsing the play
F. The next phase is usually devoted to blocking
1. Concerned with large patterns of movement
Rehearsing the play
G. When the blocking for one segment is clear, the director moves on to the next (some work and block simulatenously) 1. Initial blocking may be tentative 2. Blocking may evolve out of character relationships and the performers’ sense of their roles
Rehearsing the play
H. The next phase of rehearsal is typically devoted to deepening the performers’ understanding of their lines and blocking
1. It is difficult for performers to achieve subtle characterization or to build scenes properly if they must continually consult their scripts 2. It is important that the performers understand (in detail) who their characters are, what they are doing, why they are doing it, and how they relate to one another
Rehearsing the play
I. With musicals, the director’s task becomes especially complex during this and later stages of rehearsals 1. Must integrate songs and dances as well as devise transitions
Rehearsing the play
J. The next phase of rehearsal usually is dedicated to ensemble playing and shaping the action for an overall effect 1. Most directors include at least one uninterrupted “run-through” of the entire play during this part of the rehearsal process
Rehearsing the play
K. The final phase of rehearsals integrates all of the elements of production 1. Technical rehearsals 2. Dress rehearsals 3. Preview performances 4. Many adjustments are typically made during these final rehearsals
Rehearsing the play
When the play opens, the director’s job is considered to be
Who is responsible for a. Running the show at each performance b. Compiling the promptbook c. May organize and run auditions d. May rehearse the performers e. The director’s surrogate during performances
stage manager
Actors most nearly personifies the stage for?
the general public
Who must be aware of how the action develops, shape their performance for tension, tempo, emphasis, and build to the climax, and re-create the performance each time for a new audience?
stage actors
What are the 3 basic ingredients of acting skill?
innate ability (talent), training, and practice.
What is the actor's instrument?
body and voice
What are some specialized training actors may go through
dancing, fencing, singing, and other skills.
What are the following called: identify the given circumstances, particularize objects with the properties of real ones, and endow objects, place and people with the emotional significance and value they have for the character?
developing imagination to "feel their way" into the lives of others.
What is Actors must learn to control, shape and intergrate their basic skills as the script and the director demand
What are basic division of the the stage into areas?
upstage, downstage, stage right, and stage left
What are familiar body positions?
full front, one-quarter, three-quarter, and full back
What other terminolgy may supplement designation of area and bodily positions?
Open up, turn in, turn out, share a scene, give stage, focus, and dress the stage.
What are specifice choices of movement actors choose to strive to be graceful?
movement should be precise and clear, and the more actors know about other aspects of production the better they will be able to utilize these elements in their acting.