Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/56

Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two types of neural plasticity?
Experience-Extent & Experience Dependent
What is Experience-Extent Information?
When neurons begin to grow and differentiate rapidly at the time they can be expected to receive stimulation important to their functioning. (critical period of sensitivity) Ex. Being reared in the dark or without patterned light can result in deprivation or loss of vision.
What is Experience-Dependent Information?
The sensitivity of neurons to specific events or experiences that occur throughout the lifespan. Ex. important with neural differentiation.
What are the major structures of the brain?
Brainstem & midbrain(basic biological functioning), cortex(most of the behavior, includes regions associated w/ processing sensory & motor info such & areas involved with thinking, planning & problem-solving), cerebellum(centrally involved in coordination & control of voluntary movements), hypothalamus, and pituitary gland(play major roles in the regulation of physical growth).
Describe the patterns of growth in the brain stem and midbrain.
They are fairly well established at birth and are involved in basic reflexes & sensory processing as well as essential biological functions as digestion, elimination, and respiration.
Identify the role of the cortex through development.
The neural changes in the cortex are most closely linked to sensation, motor responses, thinking, planning, and problem solving which continue to take place well after birth. Regions associated with sensory & motor function tend to be the earliest to mature. While the frontal cortex, the region most directly involved with higher levels of cognition, tend to be among the latest.
What are the roles of neurons during the prenatal & postnatal periods?
Neurons increase in number with development. Neuron producion begins near the end of the 1st month of prenatal development and most is completed by the 6th month. Postnatally, neuron differentiation(process of enlarging, forming synapses with other neurons, & beginning to function) florishes, & contributes to the increase in brain size. Evidence exists indicating that neuron production continues well into adulthood.
What is the role of the hypothalamus in regulating growth & how does it work?
The hypothalamus is believed to contain the genetic code for growth & to play a regulatory role in growth. It READS genes & DNA that code while the pituitary gland creates hormones.
What is the importance of nutrition & health on physical growth & development?
Infant malnutrition can cause brains to develop abnormall, no body reserves to protect from disease, marasmus (disease in which groeth stops, body tissues waste away & death occurs), and kwashiorkor (condition after age when one child's body swells with water).
What is the difference between cephalocaudal development & proximodistal?
Cephalocaudal development is the pattern in which organs, systems, and motor movements near the head tend to develop earlier than those near the feet. While proximodistal development is when the center of the body goes outward, growth occurs near to far.
List the various mental conditions during pregnancy that can have an effect on the developing child?
Stress (contributes to more frequent preterm births & low birth weight).
List the environmental hazards that can be teratogenic & the effects they have on development.
Radiation (can cause genetic mutations, spontaneous abortion, small head size, & other defects associated with the skeleton, genitals, and sensory organs), chemicals including lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, as well as many elements found in paints, dyes, and coloring agents, solvents, oven cleaners, pesticides, herbicides, food additives, artificial sweeteners, & cosmetic products.
What are the principles of teratology?
Principle of Susceptibility, Principle of Critical or Sensitive Periods, Principle of Access, Principle of Dose-Response Relationships, Principle of Teratogenic Response, Principle of Interference with Specific Mechanisms, & Principle of Developmental Delays and "Sleeper Effects:.
What is the Principle of Susceptibility?
Individuals within species, as well as species themselves, show major differences in susceptibility to different teratogens. For instance, thalidomide, given in extremely large amounts to rats caused abnormal fetal development. However, given to women for morning-sickness & anxiety (20-35 days after conception) it caused more than 10,000 babies to be born w/out limbs.
What is the Principle of Critical or Sensitive Periods?
The extent to which a teratogen affects the fetus depends on the stage of development during which exposure occurs. For example, many human organs & systems are the most sensitive to toxic agents during the 3rd to 8th week after conception, when they are still being formed.
What is the Principle of Access?
The accessiblity of a given teratogen to a fetus or an embryo influences the extent of its damage. For example, cocaine may be socially approved in one segment of a culture and avoided in another. How a woman is exposed to an agent, the way she metabolizes it, and how it is transported to the womb influence whether a teratogen reaches a sufficient threshold to have some effect.
What is the Principle of Dose-Response Relationships?
The amount of exposure or dosage level of a given teratogen influences the extent of its damage. For example, the more a woman smokes the greater likelihood that the baby will be of a low birth weigh.
What is the Principle of Teratogenic Response?
Teratogens do not show uniform effects on prenatal development. For example, alcohol can cause congenital defects during the embryonic period but may interfere with prenatal weight gain & contribute to postnatal behavioral problems during the 2nd & 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. (& diff teratogens can give the same effects, hard to pinpoint cause)
What is the Principle of Interference with Specific Mechanisms?
Teratogens affect prenatal development by interfering with biochemical processes that regulate the differentiation, migration, or basic function of cells. For instance, hormonal imbalances make a difference during a pregnancy not a woman looking at something frightening.
What is the Principle of Developmental Delay & "Sleeper Effects"?
Some teratogens may delay development temporarily with no long-term negative consequences; others may cause developmental problems only late in development. For example, women treated with DES (diethylsilbestrol) a hormone administered to prevent miscarriages, gave birth to daughters who showed a high rate of genital tract cancers & sons who displayed a high incidence of abnormalities of the testes when they reached adulthood.
Summarize neural development in the embryonic period using 3 key terms.
Proliferate (increase in #), migrate (move to various regions of the brain), & differentiate (increase in size, complexity, & functioning).
List & describe the 3 stages of prenatal development.
Germinal period(0-2 weeks) - zygote moves down fallopian tube & begins cell division & growth, differentiation occurs, and implantation into uterine wall. Embryonic Period(3-8 weeks) - Mass takes on human shape and neural tube forms. Fetal period(3-9 months) - 22 weeks is age of viability, gets sex organs, and fetus fully matures.
List 2 leading casues of mental retardation.
Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) & Fatal Alcohol Syndrome.
List the various procedures that are available for the detection & diagnosis of genetic problems.
Amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, fetal blood sampling, maternal blood screening, and ultrasonagraphy.
What is amniocentesis?
A test in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is withdrawn through a syringe inserted (under the guidance of an ultrasound) in the woman's abdominal wall. (3rd -18th weeks of pregnancy)
What is chorionic villus sampling?
A diagnostic procedure in which a small sample of hair-like projections(villi) from the chorion,(the outer wall of the membrane in which the fetus develops and that attaches to the womans uterus) is removed by suction through a thin tube inserted through the vagina and cervix or in some cases through the abdominal wall.
What is fetal blood sampling?
When blood is directly withdrawn from the umbilical cord of the fetus for biochemical and chromosomal examination. (18th week-on)Is especially useful in evaluating disorders associated with the blood.
What is maternal blood screening?
When the mothers blood is screened in order to check for increased risk for Down syndrome, neural tube defects, and certain kidney and other problems.
What is ultrasonography?
When sound waves, reflecting at different rates from tissue of varying density are represented on video monitors and even printed to form a picture of the fetus.
How many chromosomes does a typical person have?
46 chromosomes
How do sex chromosomes differ from normal ones?
They have only 23 chromosomes and they undergo meiosis(process of cell division that forms the gametes)
What is the difference between dominant & recessive alleles?
When a child's phenotype shows the effects of only one of the two allelic forms the one whose characteristics observed is dominant; the allelic form whose influence is not evident in the phenotype is recessive.
What is the difference between codominance & polygenic heritage?
When the characteristics of both alleles are observed , they exhibit codominance. Yet when a trait is polygenic it is determined by several genes, each located on a different set of chromosomes.
What is possibly the most important ethical concern that arises in human developmental research?
Researchers must be concerned with obtaining informed consent, allowing participants to decline participation, debriefing participants' confidentiality. The overriding principle is that children should not be subjected physical or mental harm and should be treated with all possible respect.
What are the advantages & disadvantages of longitudinal studies & its strategies for assessing developmental change?
Is the repeated testing of the same group of children over an extended period of time. An advantage is that it can examine the stability of characteristics. While a disadvantage is that it requires a significant investment of time & resources; problems with participant attrition;can have age-history confound.
What is a cross-sectional study & what are its advantages & disadvantages?
A comparison of children of different ages at the same point in time. An advantage is that it requires less time and is less costly than a longitudinal study. A disadvantage is that you cannot study individual patterns of development or the stablity of traits; subject to cohort effects.
What is a sequential study & what are its advantages & disadvantages?
The observation of children of 2 or more different ages over a shorter period of time than in longitudinal studies. An advantage is that it combines the advantages of both longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches; can obtain information about stability of traits in a short period of time. A disadvantage is that it has the same problems as longitudianl studies , but to a lesser degree.
What is a correlational design & what are its advantages & disadvantages?
When a researcher sees if changes in one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in another variable. A advantage is that it is useful when conditions do not permit the manipulation of variables. A disadvantage is it cannot determine cause-and-effect relationships.
(Sex & Ice Cream)
What is an experimental design & what are its advantages & disadvantages?
A researcher manipulates one or more independent variables to observe the effects on the dependent variable(s). An advantage is that you can isolate cause-and-effect relationships. A disadvantage is that you may not yield information about real-life behaviors.
What is a field experiment and what are its advantages & disadvantages?
An experiment conducted in real-life, naturalistic settings. An advantage is that it can isolate cause-and-effect relationships; behaviors are observed in natural settings. A disadvantage is that there is less control over treatment conditions.
What is a quasi-experiment & what are its advantages & disadvantages?
Assignment of participants to groups determined by their natural experiences. An advantage is that it takes advantage of natural separation of children into groups. A disadvantage is that factors other than independent variables may be causing results.
What is a case study/single-case design and what are its advantages & disadvantages?
An in-depth observation of one or a few children over a period of time. An advantage is that it does not require a large pool of participants. A disadvantage is that it can be vulnerable to observer bias; ability to generalize to the larger population may be limited.
What are the 4 methods scientist use to collect data?
Naturalistic observation, structured observation, interview and questionnaire, & the meta-analytic study.
How do validity & reliability differ from one another?
Validity refers to how well an assessment procedure actually measures the variable under study. While reliability is the degree to which the same results will be obtained consistently if the measure is administered repeatedley or if several observers are viewing the same behavior episodes.
How did Freud & Erikson differ?
Freud believed that personality development originates from conflicts in early childhood and that development proceeds through a series of 5 stages. While Erikson believed that an individual's personality and social relationships can be understood only by taking into account the sociocultural context in which a person lives and that a child actively seeks his/her identity within his social environment.
What are the key concepts of Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory?
He stressed the emergence of organized ways of thinking that affect the way the child interprets experience. He also believed that all children despite culture & experience share similar capacities & undergo changes at about the same age. He was also more nature oriented. Believed in a quantitative state - that children made broad changes.
What is schema according to Piaget?
A coordinated & systematic pattern of action or way of reasoning.
What is assimilation according to Piaget?
A component of adaptation; a process of interpreting an experience in terms of current ways.
What is accomodation according to Piaget?
A component of agitation process of modification in thinking for schemes that takes place when old ways of understanding something no longer fits.
What is equilibration according to Piaget?
An innate self-regulatory process that through accomodation & assimilation results in more organized & powerful schemes for adapting to the environment.
What are the principles of classical conditioning?
There is a neutral stimulus that begins to elicit a response after being repeatedley paired with another stimulus that already elicits that response. (Pavlov's dog) - more unconscious
What are the principles of operant conditioning?
Refers to the process by which the frequency of behavior changes depending on response consequences. In the form of desireable or undesireable outcome. (Skinner's box) - more conscious
Define learning theory.
That a behavior can be explained by experiences that a person has.
Compare Behavior Analysis & Social Learning Theory.
Behavior analysis relies on principles of classical & operant conditioning to explain aspects of behavior; has an emphasis on external. While the Social Learning Theory emphasizes the importance of observational learning acquisition of behaviors from watching & listening to others; emphasis on internal.
What is development?
Physical & psychological changes in an indiviual over a lifetime.
What are the goals of developmental psychology?
Nature v. Nurture, Sociocultural Context Influences, Child's Role Development (active v passive), Continuous (gradual) v. discontinuous (progression of stages), Individual differences in development, & Relationship of domains.