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41 Cards in this Set

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POSITION OF THE KIDNEYS
-located on either side of the ____ ____
-partly ____ by the ____
-vertebral column
-protected by ribcage
ASCENT OF THE KIDNEYS
-kidneys initially develop in the ____ near the developing urinary bladder
-they must then _____ to their adult position at the rib cage
-pelvis
-ascend
FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEYS
_____:removal of ____ from body fluids in urine
_____ of blood:
-____
-____
-____ and _____
excretion: wastes
regulation of blood:
-ions
-pH
-pressure and volume
FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
-_____ of water,ions,nutrients and waste products from the ____
-_______ of most of the water, ions and nutrients ___ ___ the _____
-______ of metabolic wastes into the ____
-filtration from the blood
-reabsorption back into the blood
-excretion into urine
KIDNEYS ARE OUR HEROS
only the ____ can regulate ___ ____ in our bodies through their ability to ______ the urine or ____ the urine
kidneys regulate water volume
concentrate
dilute
GROSS ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY
-____ ____: ____ portion of kidney in contact with the surrounding ___ ____
-___ ____: bands of ___ ____ separate the renal medulla into individual renal _______
renal cortex: outer, renal capsule
renal columns: cortical tissue separates into renal pyramids
GROSS ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY(2)
___ ____: ___ to the cortex together form the ___ ____ and the tips of the pyramid called ___ ____
deep, renal medulla

renal papilla
GROSS ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY(3)
___ ___: consists of renal ____ plus overlying renal ____ adjacent renal _____
renal lobe: pyramid, cortex, columns
GROSS ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY'S COLLECTING SYSTEM
___ ___: collects ____ from a ___ ____
___ ___: formed by the joining of minor calyces
Minor Calyx: collects urine from a renal pyramid

Major Calyx
GROSS ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY'S COLLECTING SYSTEM(2)
___ ____: large,funnel-shaped chamber ____ urine into the ____ (a muscular tube that empties into the ____ ___)
Renal Pelvis: drains urine into the ureter, urinary bladder
BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE KIDNEYS
-each kidney receives blood from a ___ ___
-it divides into ______ arteries
-they become ____ arteries
-renal artery
-interlobar
-arcuate
KIDNEY HISTOLOGY
the kidney is composed of ____ and a ____ _____
nephrons

collecting system
THE NEPHRON
-the nephron is the ______ ____ of the kidney
-composed of ___ ____ and ___ _____
funtional unit

renal corpuscle and renal tuble
THE NEPHRON(2)
-____ is ____ into the nephron
-_____ passes through the nephron
-its ______ changes
-what is left ____ into the ______ ______
-blood is filtered
-filtrate
-composition changes
-empties into collecting system
THE COLLECTING SYSTEM
-as the filtrate passes through the _____ ___ its _____ ______ is _______
collecting duct

final composition is determined
RENAL CORPUSCLE
spherical structure consisting of:
-_______
-_____ _____
-_____ ____
-glomerulus
-Bowman's capsule
-urinary space
RENAL CORPUSCLE(2)
-______: intertwining network of _______
glomerulus: capillaries
RENAL CORPUSCLE(3)
-_____ _____: cup-shaped structure which surrounds the _______ and encloses the _____ ____
Bowman's Capsule: glomerulus, urinary space
FILTRATION OF FLUID FROM BLOOD INTO THE NEPHRON
occurs in the ___ ____
produces a protein-free solution called the _____
renal corpuscle

filtrate
ROLE OF PODOCYTES
however the glomerular capillaries are also surrounded by epithelial cells called ______ composed of many ___ _____ called pedicels
podocytes

foot processes
ROLE OF PODOCYTES(2)
there are ____ ____ between adjacent podocyte foot processes
-they only allow passage of ___ and _____ ____ into the urinary space
-filtration slits
-H2O and dissolved solutes
RENAL TUBULE
a long _____ tube extending from the ___ into the _____ and back to the cortex
U-shaped
cortex
medulla
RENAL TUBULE
it ___ at ___ ____
it is composed of:
-_____ _____ _____
-____ of ____
-____ ____ ____
-it ____ at the _____ ___
begins at renal corpuscle
-proximal convoluted tubule
-Loop of Henle
-distal convoluted tubule
-ends at the collecting duct
COMPOSITION OF THE WALL OF THE TUBULE
the wall of the renal tubule is composed of ______ ___
epithelial cells
RETURN OF FILTRATE FROM THE NEPHRON BACK TO THE BLOOD
functions of renal tubule cells:
-_____ ____ from the filtrate
-___ them to the ____
-reabsorb nutrients
-return blood
RETURN OF FILTRATE FROM THE NEPHRON BACK TO THE BLOOD(2)
-_____ ____
-____ it to the _____
reabsorb water

return it to the blood
PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES AND VASA RECTA
the reabsorbed H2O and solutes are ______ from the ____ in the ____ to the ____
returned from the filtrate in the tuble to the blood
THE PCT
-____ segment of renal tubule
-____ ______ of filtrate occurs here
-first
-bulk reabsorption
LOOP OF HENLE
composed of a:
-____ ____: fluid flows down into the medulla
-_____ ____: fluid flows back up into the cortex
descending limb

ascending limb
THE DCT
further adjustments to the filtrate are made in the DCT very selective _____ or _____ occurs here in response to _______
reabsorption or secretion

hormones
JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS
this is an endocrine structure composed of:
- _____ ___(specialized smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole)
-____ ____ (specialized epithelial cells in the DCT)
-juxtaglomerular cells

-macula densa
HOW THE DCT REGULATES BLOOD PRESSURE AND VOLUME
-the ___ cells release ___
-then activates ______
JG cells release renin

rectin activates angiotensin
ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE
-ANP is released by the ____ of the heart:
-due to ____ blood ____ and _____
-ANP causes ____ in blood ___ and ____
released by the atria
increase blood volume and pressure
decrease blood volume and pressure
low blood pressure leads to:
-____ to ____ to _____
-___ becomes more ______
high blood pressure leads to:
-____ production
-____ becomes more ____
-renin, angiotensin, aldosterone
-urine becomes more concentrated
-ANP
-urine becomes more dilute
THE COLLECTING DUCTS
-determine the final ____
-___ ______
-______
-release ___ which causes ____ in ___ absorption at the collecting duct
urine: ion concentration and volume
ADH: raise in H2O concentration
prevent backflow of urine
ureters
temporary reservoir for urin storage
urinary bladder
lines the bladder and ureters
urothelium
MALE URETHRA
beginas at the inferior pole of the _____
-passes through the _____ ____, ____ ____ ____, and ____
bladder
-prostrate gland
-external urethral sphincter
-penis
FEMALE URETHRA
about __ to __ inches long
more prone to ____ infections
1 to 2 inches

bladder
EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
-_____ muslce
-under _____ control
-_____ permits micturition(urination)
skeletal muscle
voluntary
relaxation