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20 Cards in this Set

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How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?

Damage caused by the First World War?
Millions killed and maimed

Belgium & NE France devastated economically

GB and France were virtually bankrupt from waging war for four years
None
How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?

Blame for starting the war?
Germany was facing defeat and had no choice but to agree armistice

Blockade on Germany continued up to TofV

Germany was not even invited to Versailles and had little choice but to accept blame which Britain and France were unsurprisingly keen on …why?
None
How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?

The ‘Tiger’ – motives and aims?
The ‘Tiger’ - French PM Clemenceau

Wanted revenge not only for WWI but also the humiliation of 1871 (loss of Alsace Lorraine)

Wanted to weaken Germany territorially and cripple her economically (through huge reparations) & never threaten France again
None
How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?

The Idealist – motives and aims?
The Idealist - US President Wilson had justified war on basis on 14 Points

Wanted a new world order (League & disarmament)

An end to empires and Germany treated fairly – he was under pressure from large German population in USA (Germany was also a large potential market for the USA)
None
How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?

The ‘Middle-man’ – motives and aims?
The ‘Middle-man’ - GB PM Lloyd George was under pressure from press and popular opinion but shared Wilson’s attitude towards Germany

Realised that it would be foolish to punish Germany in the way that Clemenceau wanted
None
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles

War Guilt
Remember that Germany had no choice but to accept blame under Article 231 of the TofV

This justified reparations

It led to TofV being named the ‘Diktat’ in Germany
None
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles

Restrictions on Germany’s armed forces
Restrictions on armed forces:

100,000 army
6 battleships
No subs or planes
No conscription
Rhineland ‘demilitarized’ with allied army of occupation for 15 years
None
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles

Reparations
Reparations figure of £6.6 billion was set in 1921 (would have taken 63 years to pay)
None
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles

Loss of land previously belonging to Germany
Alsace-Lorraine returned to France

Saar coalfields to France for 15 years

Eupen & Malmedy to Belgium

West Prussia to Poland

Danzig under League control

Baltic states allowed to govern themselves (they had been taken by Germany from Russia)
None
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles

League of Nations
Wilson’s peace-keeping organization in 14 Points

Based on principles of:
Collective security
Self-determination
Disarmament
Human rights
None
German reactions to the TofV – an unjust treaty?

The ‘Diktat’
New German government wasn’t even invited to peace negotiations

TofV was imposed on Germany through blockade

Treaty was denounced in German press as unjust & ‘dictated’.
None
German reactions to the TofV – an unjust treaty?

Article 231
The War Guilt clause

Germany had to accept responsibility for starting a war which she thought that other countries at least shared the blame for
None
German reactions to the TofV – an unjust treaty?

The ‘stab in the back’
The German people, outraged by their treatment, increasingly came to believe that the German army had not actually been defeated in November 1918, but that the new government had betrayed them by signing the armistice

This myth was encouraged by returning troops and General Ludendorff
None
German reactions to the TofV – an unjust treaty?

Punishment
Huge resentment caused by imposed disarmament that left Germany unable to defend her own borders

Humiliating loss of territories (loss of coal and iron)?

And reparations (£6.6 bn) that Germans claimed they would never be able to pay
None
German reactions to the TofV – an unjust treaty?

Contrast with 14 Points
Millions of Germans were now under foreign rule which went against Wilson’s idea of self-determination

Germany was not invited to join the League of Nations which she viewed as a ‘club of victors’
None
Test yourself on how the TofV hit Germany

Reparations
£6.6 billion in compensation for war damages to France and Belgium and Britain
None
Test yourself on how the TofV hit Germany

Military
100,000 army

No conscription

No subs or planes

Only six battleships
None
Test yourself on how the TofV hit Germany

Population
6 million Germans forced to become citizens of other countries
None
Test yourself on how the TofV hit Germany

Resources
13% of land lost

15% of farming lost and 48% of steel production
None
Test yourself on how the TofV hit Germany

Anschluss
Union with Austria prohibited
None