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76 Cards in this Set

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The Renaissance
Rebirth of learning and the arts
Inspires others to take another look at the world
The Reformation
Encouraged followers to challenge accepted authority
Martin Luther
Rejected some Church doctrine
indulgences
Geocentric view of the universe:
Earth was immovable, stationary, center of the universe

Everything else moved around the earth -Circular motion
Geocentric was the common belief in ...
Ancient Greece
Ancient Rome
What were the Foundations of a Geocentric Universe?
. Aristotle -4th century BC
Said Earth was- Flat,Center of the universe, Stationary
Ptolemy
2nd century AD
Believed that:Aristotle was right

If the earth moved…objects would be left behind
The Church and geocentricity
deliberately placed the earth at the center of the universe

Made the earth a special place

Supported the idea of creation
Scientific Revolution
Sparked a new way of thinking about the world
What was the Scientific Revolution based on?
Observation
Willingness to question accepted beliefs
Why was there a need for a better explanation of the universe?
No accurate explanation for the motion of the planets, moon, and sun

Calendar was out of sync
What was the only logical explanation of planetary motion?
Sun is the center of the universe
Copernicus
1473-1543 AD
Polish cleric and astronomer

Studied planetary motion for over 25 years

Realized that the stars, earth and other planets were actually moving
Problems with Copernican theory?
Did not explain why the planets orbited the way they did

Contradicted the Church
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
Written by Copernicus

The book proposed a Heliocentric Universe

Did not receive a copy of it until he was on his deathbed
Effects of On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres?
Very little at first

Took a ½ century for others to continue the research
Brahe
Astronomer who built the most sophisticated observatory of his day

Continued Copernicus’ work
Recorded the movements of the planets

Compiled ridiculous amounts of data

Died before he could ever make sense of it
Johannes Kepler
1571-1630 AD

Brahe’s student

Used (or stole?) Brahe’s data

Decided that mathematical laws governed the universe
Kelper's 3 Basic Laws of Planetary Motion
1. Elliptical Orbits of Planets
2. Planets do not move at a uniform speed
3. Time it takes a planet to move around the sun is directly related to it’s distance from the sun.
What did Kelper prove?
Proved that Copernicus was right!
Proved mathematically that the planets move around the sun
Galileo Galilei
1564-1642 AD
Italian scientist
Improved the telescope
Clearly supported Copernicus’ ideas
Starry Messenger
Described the observations Galileo had made with the telescope

Moon has an uneven surface

4 moons of Jupiter

Sun had dark spots

Refuted Aristotle
When does Catholic Church warned Galileo to not defend Copernicus’ ideas?
1616
When does Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the 2 Chief World Systems that Supported Copernicus?
1632
When does Pope summoned Galileo to Rome Under threat of torture he was forced to recant?
1633
When does Died while under house arrest?
1642
The Scientific Method
Logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas

Observation

Question

Hypothesis

Experiment

Analyze or interpret data in order to come to a conclusion
Who helped to develop the Scientific Method?
Who helped to develop the Scientific Method?
Isaac Newton
Brought together the works of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo by creating a single theory of motion

Universal Laws of Gravitation
What did Newton's theory discuss?
Inertia
body in motion stays in motion etc.
Acceleration
FOR EVERY ACTION THERE IS AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE reaction!
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
1687
Newton published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

One of the most important science books ever written

Explained how the universe worked

Placed God in the role of “clockmaker”
When was Microscope invented
1590
When was Barometer invented
1643
When was Thermometer (Fahrenheit) invented
1714
When was Thermometer (Celsius) invented
1742
Time span The Scientific Revolution?
A. 1500-late 1600’s
Three changes during Scientific Revolution?
1. sun centered universe
2. new physics-study of motion
3. a new way of questioning and studying the universe
What 3 tools did scientists use to explain how to earth revolved around the sun?
1. Observation
2. Experiment
3. Reason
Neoplatonism
A philosophical system developed at Alexandria in the third century A.D. by Plotinus and his successors. It is based on Platonism with elements of mysticism and some Judaic and Christian concepts and posits a single source from which all existence emanates and with which an individual soul can be mystically united.
Medieval scientific advances
1. Artists and their observations of the natural world
2. The magnetic compass
3. The printing press
4. Gunpowder
5. A fascination with light (optics and lens grinding)
Humanists values on science during renaissance?
1. Humanists placed low value on science - More interested in classical antiquity and the authority of the ancients
2. Arabic translations of Greek classics
3. Rediscovery of Ptolemy and Archimedes
4. The universe as machine
5. Developing collaboration between artisans and intellectuals
6. Building machines for practical use
7. The laws of perspective and optics
8. Alchemy and astrology
9. Voyages of discovery
Aristotle and Ptolemy views on science?
a) Heavenly bodies orbit in a hierarchy of spheres
b) Heavens and earth composed of different matter
c) Earth, air, fire, and water
Problems with Ptolemic theory in late Middle Ages?
1. Ptolemaic system did not conform to observations
2. Retrograde motion
3. Roman calendar out of alignment with movement of heavenly bodies - The "problem" of Easter and other holy days
Nicholas Copernicus
1. Renaissance Man
2. Ptolemaic system had become too messy

4. Believed he had restored a pure understanding of God's plan but was troubled by its implications
5. New problems and inconsistencies
6. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)
Copernican system
Copernican system
a) The earth moved and was not the center of the planetary system
b) The earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun
Tycho Brahe
(1546–1601)
1. A champion of observation
2. Observed the appearance of a new star (nova) in 1572
3. Built his own observatory
4. Tycho not a Copernican - Planets orbited the sun, the whole of which orbited a stationary earth
5. Court astronomer to Rudolph II at Prague
Johannes Kepler
(1571–1630)
1. Served as Tycho's assistant
2. Everything had been created according to mathematical laws
a) Mathematics as the language of God
b) Mathematical perfection and musical harmonies
Three laws of planetary motion
by Johannes Kepler
a) Planets travel in elliptical orbits
b) Speed of the planets vary with their distance from the sun
c) Magnetic forces keep the planets in orbital motion
Books by Kelper
4. Cosmographic Mystery (1596)
5. New Astronomy or Celestial Physics (1609)
6. The Harmonies of the World (1619)
Galileo the man?
1. A witty and persuasive writer (wrote in Latin and Italian)
A popularizer of the non-Aristotelian approach to science
Galileo's telescope
1. Built his own telescope in 1610
2. Observed the features of the moon, the moons of Jupiter, and sun spots
The Starry Messenger
(1610) by Galileo recorded his observations from his telescope
Galileo's need for a patron?
1. Disliked power of university authorities
2. Turned to princely courts
3. Took a position as tutor to the Medicis
Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina de Medici
(1615) by Galileo
a) One can be a sincere Copernican and a Catholic
b) Understanding the physical world is best left to the natural philosopher
When does the the Inquisition declares heretical the proposition that the earth moves - Copernicus's De Revolutionibus is placed on the Index of Forbidden Books?
1616
A Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems and its result?
a) Inquisition banned the book
b) Galileo ordered to stand trial in 1633
c) Recanted his beliefs and placed under house arrest for life
When does Galileo stand before the inquisition?
1633
Francis Bacon
(1561–1626)
1. New confidence in the potential of human thought
2. Lord Chancellor to James I
3. Separation of scientific investigation from philosophical argument
Inductive method of Bacon
a) Combining evidence from observations to draw general conclusions
b) Cooperation between researchers
c) "Useful" knowledge
René Descartes
1596–1650
An intellectually restless man
The Discourse on Method (1637)
Descartes (1637)
a) Began as an essay on optics, geometry, and meteorology
b) Systematic doubt of everything
c) Cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am")
d) The thinking person exists, reason exists, God exists
Descartes deductive method?
a) A "fresh start for knowledge"
b) Proceeds logically from one certainty to another
c) Mathematical thought an expression of the highest standards of reason
Descartes mechanical philosophy
a) Nature as machine
b) Rejected the medieval distinction between the works of man and those of nature
c) Toward a new conception of matter
d) Nature and natural laws
The Cartesians
1. Mostly France and Holland
2. Mathematics and logic
3. Blaise Pascal
4. Christian Huygens
5. Baruch Spinoza
Blaise Pascal
a) Probability theory
b) Theology
Christian Huygens
(1629–1695)
The problem of impact and orbital motion
Baruch Spinoza
(1632–1677)
Applied geometry to ethics
The Baconians
1. Began with practical research
2. Sought empirical laws based on evidence
3. William Harvey (1578–1657)
4. Robert Boyle (1627–1691)
5. Robert Hooke (1635–1703)
The Royal Society
1662
a) Committed to experiment and collaborative work
b) Serving political and intellectual purposes
c) A common sense of purpose
d) Philosophical Transactions
French Academy of Sciences established?
1666
Women and science
a) Margaret Cavendish (1623–1673)
b) Maria Winkelmann (1670–1720)
(1) Refused admission to Berlin Academy of Science
c) Maria Sibylla Merian (1647–1717)
(1) Studied entomology
Isaac Newton the man
1643–1727
1. Born to a family of small landowners
2. Studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (stayed thirty-five years)
3. A reclusive, secretive, and obsessive man
Newton the scientist
1. Optics - Used prisms to demonstrate that light was composed of different-colored rays
2. Mathematics - Integral and differential calculus
3. Gravity - The falling apple
4. Reflective telescope
5. Elected to the Royal Society (1672)
Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy)
a) Published in 1687 (prompted by Edmund Halley)
b) A long and difficult work
c) Gravitation was a universal force that could be expressed mathematically
d) Built upon the work of Galileo, Kepler, Boyle, Descartes, and Hooke
e) A single, descriptive account of mass and motion
f) The laws of gravitation
The General Scholium
1713 answered objections to the Principia
The legacy of Newton
1. Certainty and objectivity lay in the precise mathematical characterization of phenomenon
2. Buried at Westminster Abbey (Pope's couplet)
3. Voltaire spread Newtonian ideas to France