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13 Cards in this Set

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What is DNA?
A chemical inside cells that contains heredity information and controls how an will look and function
What is mitosis?
Cell division process in which DNA in the nucleus is duplicated and the nucleus divides into two nuclei that contains the same genetic information
What is meant by sexual reproduction?
A type of reproduction in which a new organism is produced from the DNA of two sex cells (egg and sperm)
cloning
Making copies of organisms, each of which is a clone that receives DNA from only one parent cell
What is meant by asexual reproduction?
A type of reproduction, such as budding or regeneration, in which a new organism is produced from a part of another organism by the process of mitosis
sex cells
specialized cells--female eggs and male sperm--that are produced by the process of meiosis, carry DNA, and join in sexual reproduction
meiosis
process in which sex cells are formed in the reproductive organs; involves two divisions of the nucleus, producing four sex cells, each having half the number of chromosomes as the original cell
fertilization
process in which sperm and egg join, resulting in a new organism
heredity
passing on of traits from parents to offspring
genetics
study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring
gene
small section of DNA on a chromosome that carries information about a trait
variation
inherited trait that makes an individual different from other members of the same species and results from a mutation in the organism's genes
mutation
change in a gene or chromosome that can result from something in the environment or an error in mitosis or meiosis; can be harmful, neutral, or beneficial, and adds variation to the genes of a species