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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the fxns of the respiratory system?
Gas exachange, regulation of blood ph, voice production, olfaction, and protection
What type of capillaries facillitate in external respiration (02 loading and CO2 unloading)?
Pulmonary capillaries
What type of capillaries facillitate in internal respiration (O2 unloading and CO2 loading)?
Systemic capillaries
What 3 bones make up the bridge of the nose?
nasal, frontal, and maxillary bones
What are the names for the nasal external openings?
What is the part of the nasal cavity that are openings into the pharynx?
What is the anterior part of the nasal cavity just inside of each naris?
What are the hairs that filter particles from inspired air?
What is the fxn of the paranasal sinuses?
To warm and moisten inhaled air and lighten skull
What forms the floor of the nasal cavity and the roof of the oral cavity?
Hard palate
What are the mucosal covered projections from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?
What is the fxn of the conchae?
To increase air turbulance and increase mucosal surface area allowing inhaled debris to be trapped on mucus.
What region of the pharynx is for air passage only?
What is the flap-like extension of the soft palate that prevents food ebtry into the nasal cavity?
What region of the pharynx is the uvula located?
What region of the pharynx are the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) located?
Which pharynx region(s)are a passageway for food and air?
Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx
Where are the lingual and palentine tonsils located?
Which pharynx region is posterior to the epiglottis?
What type of cartilage is the larynx made up of?
What type of cartilage is the epigolottis made up of?
Elastic cartilage
What are the 3 unpaired cartilage regions of the larynx?
Thyroid, Cricoid, and Epiglottic
What structure precents swallowed substances from entering the trachea?
What is makes up the base of the larynx?
What is also known as the Adam's Apple and the size is due to the amount of testosterone?
Thyroid Cartilage
What are the 3 paired regions of the larynx?
Arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate
What anchors the vocal cords?
The primary bronchi are formed at which vertebrae?
T 7
The primary bronchi dividein to these bronchi and how many are there on each side?
Socondary/lobar; 2 on left; 3 on right
The secondary bronchi divide into what bronchi?
Tertiary/segmental bronchi
After the tertiary/segmental bronchi divide what are the divisions called?
What are the smallest air passages in the conducting zone?
Terminal bronchioles
The Respiratory Zone is defined by what?
The presence of alveoli
What are the 1st division of the respiratory zone?
Respiratory bronchioles
The respiratory bronchioles branch from what?
Terminal bronchioles
The respiratory bronchioles lead to the what?
Alveolar ducts
What are the terminal clusters that alveolar ducts end in?
Alveolar sacs
What is the purpose for alveolar sacs?
Increases surface area for gas exchange
Alveolar walls are formed of what 2 cell types?
Type I and II pneumocytes
What cells make up 90% of the alveolar surface of the alveolar walls?
Type I pneumocytes
What do Type II pneumocytes produce that help reduce surface tension in the alveoli?
Pulmonary surfactant
How many lobes of the lung are on the right? on left?
3 and 2
What is the smallest subdivision of a lung visible to the naked eye?
Lung lobule
What provides lubrication for breathing movements?
Pleural fluid
What type of membrane holds lungs in their own pleural cavity?
Serous cavity
What muscles are contracted during the process of inspiration causing the ribs to rise and move laterally?
External intercostals
What happens to your diaphragm as pulmonary volume increases?
It moves inferiorly
What is a passive process that depends on natural elasticity of lungs?
Forced expiration involves contraction of what muscles?
Internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
The basic rhythm of breathing is established in which areas?
Medulla oblongata and pons
Where are the Dorsal and Ventral Respiratory Groups located?
Medulla oblongata
Which medullary center near the root of cranial nerve IX - glossopharyngeal?
Dorsal Respiratory Group
Which center sends APs to the diaphragm via the phrenic nerve and to the external intercostals via intercosal nerves?
Dorsal Respiratory Group
Does the Dorsal Respiratory Group cause you to inhale or exhale?
What part of the medullary center extends from the psonal cord to the pons-medulla jxn?
Ventral Respiratory Group
What area is inactive during Eupnea?
Ventral Respiratory Group
When the VRG is activated which muscles are activated and via which nerves?
Internal intercostals via intercostal nerves and abdominal muscles via abdominal nerves
What is responsible for "fine tuning" action of the medullary center and "smooths out" transition from inhalation to exhalation?
Pontile Centers
What are the 2 types of the Pontile centers?
Pneumotaxic center and apneusic center
Which division of the pontile center limits the amount of time you are actually inhaling by sending inhibitory APs to the DRG, shutting off inspiratory neurons?
Pneumotaxic center
What pontile center is signaled to fire APs when lungs have reached its optimal filling capacity?
Pneumotaxic Center
Which pontile center is inactive during Eupnea?
Apneustic Center
Which pontile center gives a boost to inspiration when needed by shutting off the DRG?
Apneustic Center
Which medullary center involves the release of ACH?
Dorsal Medullary Center
What is the name of the process that involves pulmonary stretch receptors in the bronchioles and APs are send afferently when lungs being to surpass maximal filling capacity?
Hering Breuer Reflex
Which nerve sends inhibitory APs from the DRG to the diaphragm?
Phrenic Nerve
What is the protective reflex that prevents over inflation of the lungs?
Hering Breuer Reflex
What type of chemoreceptors are wekly sensitive to an increase in CO2 but highly sensitive to H+?
Peripheral Chemoreceptors
What is the dominant controlling response in ventilation?
Central chemoreceptors
What chemoreceptors are stimulated by O2 only if there is a severe decrease?
Peripheral chemoreceptors
Is the PO2 higher or lower in the systemic capillaries than in the tissue cells?
Is the PCO2 higher in the pulmonary capillaries or in the systemic capillaries?
Systemic capillaries
Is the PCO2 higher in the pulmonary capillaries or in the alveoli?
Pulmonary capillaries
O2 loads up in which capillaries?
Pulmonary capillaries
Where does Hb unload O2?
Does the bond strength b/w O2 and HB increase or decrease is CO2 levels in the tissue increase?
What factors can cause a decrease in bond strength b/w O2 and Hb?
High CO2, High H+, or high temp
What is the condition that results in too few RBCs or RBCs are not containing adequate Hb levels?
Anemic hypoxia
What is the condition when there is decreased O2 delivery due to blood circulation to a buildup of scar tissue?
Ischemic hypooxia
What is the condition if tissue cells are unable to use O2 supplied to them but O2 delivery is normal?
Histotoxic hypoxia
Cyanide poising can lead to which oxygen impurement?
Histotoxic hypoxia
What is the condition when the alveolar PO2 is normal but the arterial PO2 is low due to a reduced Hb saturation?
Hypoxic hypoxia
Most of CO2 in your body is transported by what?
What is the condition that results low PCO2 and repiratory alkalosis?
What is the condition that results in high PCO2 and respiratory acidosis?