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90 Cards in this Set

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What are 4 processes involved in respiration?
Ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration, and transport of respiratory gases in the blood.
What is the major function of the respiratory system?
To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide.
What are some functions of the nose?
1) provides an airway for respiration, 2) moistens and warms entering air, 3) filters and cleans inspired air, 4) serves as a resonating chamber for speech, and 5) houses the olfactory (smell) receptors.
The wall of an alveolus is composed primarily of what?
Simple Squamous Epithelium or Type I cells.
Name the two types of mucous membrane that line the nasal cavity.
Olfactory mucosa - superior (smell receptors); Respiratory mucosa (scattered goblet cells).
Define defensin.
Natural antibiotics that help get rid of invading microbes.
What causes us to sneeze?
The nasal mucosa comes into contact with irritating particles (dust, pollen, and the like),which triggers a sneeze reflex.
What are 3 functions of the larynx?
A patent airway; switching mechanism to route food into posterior esophagus; voice production.
Define atelectasis
aka Lung collapse.
What are the 3 regions of the pharynx?
The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
What tonsil is located within the nasopharynx?
Pharyngeal (or adenoids).
What two kinds of tonsils lie embedded in the oropharyngeal mucosa?
Palatine tonsils located in the lateral walls of the fauces and the lingual tonsil, which covers the base of the tongue.
Which regions of the pharynx does food and air pass through?
The oropharynx and laryngopharynx.
Which region is known as an air conduit?
Nasopharynx
What type of cartilage forms the epiglottis?
Elastic cartilage.
What important physical feature is a part of the thyroid cartilage?
The midline laryngeal prominence, which marks the fusion point, is obvious externally as the Adam's apple.
What is the purpose of the epiglottis?
It prevents food or liquids from entering the respiratory channels during swallowing.
Name the layers of the tracheal wall.
Mucosa, submucosa, and adventitia.
What are the 4 respiratory volumes?
Tidal, inspiratory and expiratory reserve, residual.
What are the 4 respiratory capacities?
Vital, functional residual, inspiratory, and total lung.
State Dalton's law.
It states that each gas in a mixture of gases exerts pressure in proportion to its percentage in the total mixture.
State Henry's law
The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.
State Boyle's Law.
When the temp is constant, the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume.
What are the 3 most common types of lung cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma.
How does squamous cell carcinoma develop?
arises in the epithelium of the bronchi or their larger subdivisions and tends to form masses that cavitate (hollow out) and bleed
How does adenocarcinoma develop?
originates in peripheral lung areas as solitary nodules that develop from bronchial glands and alveolar cells
How does small cell carcinoma develop?
lymphocyte-like cells that originate in the primary bronchi and grow aggressively in small grapelike clusters within the mediastinum.
How do most lung cancers originate?
From the absence or mutation of tumor suppressor gene p53 or through action of the K - ras oncogene.
Define cystic fibrosis.
Genetic disorder where oversecretion of mucus clogs the respiratory passages, predisposes to fatal respiratory infections.
What is the respiratory rate in newborn infants?
40-80 respirations per minute.
What is the respiratory rate in a five-year old?
Around 25 respirations per minute.
What is the respiratory rate in adults?
Between 12 and 18 per minute.
Where are the lungs located?
Flanking the mediastinum in the thoracic cavity, each lung is suspended in its own pleural cavity via its root.
How are respiratory system organs divided functionally?
Conducting zone structures (nose to bronchioles), which filter, warm, and moisten incoming air; and Respiratory zone structures (respiratory bronchioles to alveoli), where gas exchanges occur.
Define pulmonary ventilation.
Mechanical process, causing gas flow into and out of lungs according to volume changes in thoracic cavity.
What are nonrespiratory air movements?
Nonrespiratory air movements are voluntary or reflex actions that clear the respiratory passageways or express emotions.
Define external respiration.
Movement of oxygen from lungs to blood and of carbon dioxide from blood to lungs.
Define internal respiration.
Movement of oxygen from blood to tissue cells and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood.
What happens during hypoxia?
Inadequate amounts of oxygen are delivered to body tissues. Patient is blue.
What is the Valsalva's maneuver?
A sphincter function of the larynx, where the glottis closes to prevent exhalation and the abdominal muscles contract, causing intra-abdominal pressure to rise. Helps empty rectum and stabilize body trunk when lifting.
What is the function of the pharyngeal tonsil?
To trap and destroy pathogens entering the nasopharynx.
Define Cheyne-Stokes breathing.
Abnormal breathing patterning sometimes seen just before death ("death rattle") and in people with combined neurological and cardiac disorders.
What type of cartilage forms the other 8 laryngeal cartilages?
Hyaline cartilage.
The relative proportions of gases in the alveoli reflect?
Gas exchange in lungs; humidification of air; mixing of gas with each breath.
How is molecular oxygen carried in the blood?
Bound to hemoglobin within RBCs and dissolved in plasma.
What is the breakdown of molecular oxygen transport in the blood?
1.5% is dissolved in plasma; 98.5 % is carried via hemoglobin.
Define chronic bronchitis.
Condition with increased mucous production, which clogs respiratory passageways and promotes coughing.
Define asthma.
Disorder of the bronchi that causes constriction and mucus production.
Define tuberculosis.
Infection spread by airborne bacteria that mainly affects lungs; widespread among drug users and AIDS victims.
Nitric Oxide (NO) is secreted by what two cells?
Lung and vascular endothelial cells.
Epistaxis is also known as:
Nosebleed.
What are nonrespiratory air movements?
Voluntary or reflex actions that clear the respiratory passageways or express emotions.
Terminal bronchioles lead into which respiratory zone structures?
Alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
Which arteries carry blood returned from systemic circulation to the lungs?
Pulmonary arteries.
Which arteries provide the nutrient blood supply of the lungs?
The bronchial arteries.
Carbon dioxide is transported into the blood through what three ways?
Plasma, hemoglobin bound to globins, and as bicarbonate.
What does the Haldane Effect affect the respiratory system?
It encourages CO2 exchange in the lungs and tissues.
How does inspiration occur?
When diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, it increases dimension of thorax. As intrapulmonary pressure drops, air rushes into lungs until intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures are equalized.
What happens during expiration?
Muscles relax and lungs recoil. When intrapulmonary pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure, gases flow from the lungs.
What happens when there is friction in the air passageways?
It causes resistance, which decreases air passage and causes breathing movements to become more strenuous.
Why do premature infants have problems keeping their lungs inflated?
Surfactant is formed late in fetal development, thus, the infant lacks surfactant in their alveoli.
What two factors determine lung compliance?
Elasticity of lung tissue and flexibility of the bony thorax.
What factors influence the amount of oxygen that will be bound to hemoglobin?
PO2 and PCOx of blood, blood pH, the presence of BPG, and temperature.
The accummulation of CO2 lead to _______ pH.
Decreased
The depletion of CO2 from blood leads to ____________ blood pH.
Increased
Which center is responsible for the rhythmicity of breathing?
Inspiratory
What is the inflation (Hering-Breuer) reflex?
A protective reflex initiated by extreme overinflation of the lungs acts to initiate expiration.
What chemicals influence respiration?
CO2 (most potent), O2 and H+
Control of breathing during rest is aimed primarily __________________.
at regulating the H+ concentration in the brain.
What is hypocapnia?
Condition where low CO2 levels in blood cause cerebral blood vessels to constrict.
What is acclimatization?
The body's adaptive response to high altitudes where respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments are made.
Define dyspnea.
Difficult or labored breathing often referred to as "air hunger."
What is COPD?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Includes bronchitis and emphysema.
Define surfactant.
Mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins produced by certain cells of the alveoli that reduced the surface tension of water molecules, and presevented alveoli collapse after each expiration.
What is Emphysema?
Pulmonary disease charactered by deterioration of the lung stroma and increase in size of the alveoli.
Define tonsils.
Ring of lymphocyte tissue around entrance to pharynx; 3 pairs named for each location (pharyngeal, palatine & lingual)
Define tidal volume.
Amount of air (500 ml) that moves in and out of lungs per breath.
Define inspiratory reserve volume.
Amount of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond tidal volume (2100-3200 ml).
Define expiratory reserve volume.
Amount of air (1000-1200 ml) that can be evacuated from lungs after tidal expiration.
Define vital capacity.
Maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum inhalation.
Define residual volume.
The 1200 ml of air that remains in lungs.
What is responsible for modifying breathing rhythm and preventing overinflation of the lungs?
The Pontine Respiratory Group (within the pons).
When arterial pH declines, how does the respiratory system respond?
It attempts to compensate by causing an increase in rate and depth of breathing.
The medullary centers can be bypassed and have control over respiration replaced by the ________________.
Cerebral cortex
What is the strongest stimuli influencing respiration?
Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of PCO2.
Hypercapnia (aka PCO2) is associated with what?
An increase in rate and depth of breathing.
Name the main parts of the respiratory system.
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
What 3 neural factors contribute to the change in respiration?
Psychic stimuli, cortical stimulation of skeletal muscles and respiratory centers, and excitatory impulses to respiratory areas.
Define intrapulmonary pressure.
Pressure in the alveoli, which rises and falls during respiration, but evenutally equalizes with atmospheric pressure.
Define intrapleural pressure.
Pressure within the pleural cavity. It also rises and falls during respiration, but is always about 4mm Hg less than intrapulmonary pressure.