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150 Cards in this Set

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asexual
do not produce specialized reproductive or sex cells called gametes
the ____ produced in the male reproductive system are called ____ cells
gametes, sperm
gametes produced in the female reproductive system are called ____ cells or ____
egg, ova
one ____ cell and one ____ come together during the process of ________ to produce a cell called the _____
sperm, ovum, fertilization, zygote
the zygote
contains an intermingling of genetic messages from the sex cells of both parents
the ____ has a dual function in men
urethra
the urethra
serves as a passageway for both urine and reproductive fluid from the body
male reproductive fluid
semen
in males, _______ ______ is sometimes used in place of reproductive system
urogenital system
the _____ organs of reproduction in men and women are called the ____
essential, gonads
the _____ of men consist of a pair of main sex glands called the ____
gonads, testes
the ____ produce the male sex cells, or _______ and ______
testes, spermatozoa, testosterone
the ______ organs of reproduction in men consist of the following structures:
accessory; series of passageways or ducts, additional sex glands, external genitals
passageways/ducts:
carry the sperm from the testes to the exterior
additional sex glands:
provide secretions that protect and nurture sperm
external reproductive organs:
external genitals
essential male reproductive organs:
gonads: testes
ducts:
epididymis (two), vas deferens (two), ejaculatory duct (two), and urethra
supportive sex glands:
seminal vesicle (two), bulbourethral or cowper's gland (two), and prostate gland
external genitals:
scrotum and penis
the paired ____ are the ____ of men
testes, gonads
the testes are located in the pouchlike _____ , which is suspended outside of the body cavity below the ____
scrotum, penis
exposed location of the testes :
provide an environment about 1* c (3* f) cooler than normal body temp
lower temp of testicular location:
important requirement for the normal production and survival of sperm
each ____ is a small, oval gland about 1.5 in long and 1 in wide
testis
each testis is surrounded by a tough, whitish membrane called the ____ ____
tunica albuginea
the tunica albuginea covers the _____ and then enters the gland to form the many ____ that divide it into sections or ____
testicle, septa, lobules
each ____ consists of a narrow but long and coiled _____ _____
seminiferous tubule
seminiferous tubules:
form the bulk of the testicular tissue mass
_____ _____ of the testes secrete the male sex hormone ______
interstitial cells, testosterone
small, specialized cells lying near the septa that separate the lobules
interstitial cells
each ______ _____ is a long duct with a central _____ or passageway
seminiferous tubule, lumen
____ develop in the walls of the seminiferous tubule and are then released into the lumen
sperm
sperm production is called _______
spermatogenesis
from puberty on, the _______ ______ continuously form _______ (sperm)
seminiferous tubules, spermatozoa
sperm:
although the number of sperm produced each day diminish with increasing age, most men continue to produce significant numbers throughout life
sperm precursor (stem) cells:
spermatogonia
spermatogonia:
are located near the outer edge of each seminiferous tubule
mitosis
results in the division of a "parent" cell into two "daughter" cells
when a boy enters puberty, circulating levels of _____ cause a _______ to undergo a unique type of cell division
follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh), spermatogonium
daughter cell that forms a more specialized cell called a ______ ______
primary spermatocyte
primary spermatocyte:
undergoes a specialized type of division called meiosis
meiosis:
results in sperm formation
in meiosis:
two cell divisions occur (not one as in mitosis)
the daughter cells in meiosis are called _______
spermatids
the four spermatids in meiosis:
only have half the genetic material and half the chromosomes of other body cells
in women _____ results in a single ovum, which also has ___ chromosomes
meiosis, 23
spermatozoa:
are among the smallest and most highly specialized cells in the body
mitosis
results in the division of a "parent" cell into two "daughter" cells
when a boy enters puberty, circulating levels of _____ cause a _______ to undergo a unique type of cell division
follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh), spermatogonium
daughter cell that forms a more specialized cell called a ______ ______
primary spermatocyte
primary spermatocyte:
undergoes a specialized type of division called meiosis
meiosis:
results in sperm formation
in meiosis:
two cell divisions occur (not one as in mitosis)
the daughter cells in meiosis are called _______
spermatids
the four spermatids in meiosis:
only have half the genetic material and half the chromosomes of other body cells
in women _____ results in a single ovum, which also has ___ chromosomes
meiosis, 23
spermatozoa:
are among the smallest and most highly specialized cells in the body
sex hormones in both sexes are important in development of ______ ______ ______ and normal ______ system activity
secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive
structural plan of male reproductive system:
reproductive organs are classified as essential or accessory
______ organs of reproduction are the _____ (testes in males), which produce sex cells called ______
essential, gonads, sperm
______ organs; ducts, sex glands, external genitals
accessory
ducts
passageways that carry sperm from testes to exterior
sex glands
produce protective and nutrient secretions for sperm
testes
the gonads of men
location of testes:
scrotum
temperature of testes:
1* lower
_________ cells produce _______
interstitial, testosterone
testis functions:
spermatogenesis
spermatogenesis:
process of sperm production
spermatogenesis:
meiosis, spermatozoa
meiosis produces ______ ______, which forms four ______ with 23 chromosomes
primary spermatocyte, spermatids
spermatozoa:
highly specialized cells
spermatozoa:
head, acrosomes, mitochondria
production of testosterone:
carried on by the interstitial cells of the testes
______ "masculinizes" and promotes and maintains development of the male _____ organs
testosterone, accessory
testosterone stimulates ______ ______ and development of muscle strength
protein anabolism
______ pass through _______ ducts after exiting _____ until they exit from the body by way of the ______
sperm, reproductive, testes, epididymis
epididymis:
single, coiled tube about 6 m in length
the _____ lies along the top and behind the _____ in the _____
epididymis, testis, scrotum
_____ mature and develop the capacity for mobility as they pass through the ______
sperm, epididymis
reproductive ducts:
epididymis, ductus vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
ductus vas deferens:
receives sperm from the epididymis and transports them from scrotal sac through the abdominal cavity
ductus vas deferens:
passes through inguinal canal
ductus vas deferens:
joins ducts of seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory duct:
passes through the substance of the prostate gland and permits sperm to empty into the urethra
sex glands:
produce semen
mixture of ____ and secretions of ______ sex glands
sperm, accessory
averages 3 to 5 ml per ______, with 100 million _____ per ml
ejaculation, sperm
seminal vesicles:
pouchlike glands that produce about 60% of seminal volume
seminal vesicles:
secretion is yellowish, thick, rich in fructose to provide energy needed by sperm for mobility
prostate gland:
urethra passes through the gland
prostate gland:
thin, milk-colored secretion represents 30% of seminal fluid volume
prostate gland:
provides an alkaline protection for sperm (vagina is acidic)
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands:
resemble peas in size and shape
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands:
secrete mucous-like fluid constituting less than 5% of seminal fluid volume
the _____ and _____ constitute the ______ reproductive organs or genitalia of men
penis, scrotum, external
scrotum:
skin-covered pouch suspended from the groin
scrotum:
internally divided into two sacs by the septum
penis:
three columns of erectile tissue
penis:
two dorsal columns called corpora cavernosa
penis:
one ventral column surrounding the urethra called corpus spongiosum
essential organs, or _____, in women are the _____
gonads, ovaries
ovaries:
produce sex cells called ova
female accessory organs:
ducts or modified ducts, sex glands, external genitals
female ducts:
oviducts, uterus, vagina
female sex glands:
includes those in breast
ovaries:
paired glands weighing about 3 g each
ovaries:
resemble large almonds
ovaries are attached to ______ in pelvic cavity on each side of _____
ligaments, uterus
ovarian follicles:
contain oocyte, an immature sex cell (about 1 million at birth) - for life
primary follicles:
are covered with granulosa cells (about 400,000 at puberty)
secondary follicles (graafian follicles)
have a hollow chamber called the antrum
corpus luteum:
forms after ovulation from ruptured follicle
ovary functions:
oogenesis
oogenesis:
the production of female gametes or sex cells
oogenesis:
meiotic cell division produces daughter cells with equal chromosome numbers (23) but unequal cytoplasm
ovum:
is large
polar bodies:
are small and degenerate
estrogen:
granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte in the mature female, and growing follicles produce estrogen
progesterone:
produced by corpus luteum
uterine tubes:
also called fallopian tubes or oviducts
uterine tubes:
extend about 10 cm from uterus into abdominal cavity
uterine tubes:
expanded distal and surrounded by fimbriae
uterine tubes:
mucosal lining of tube is directly continuous with lining of abdominal cavity
uterus:
composed of body, fundus, and cervix
uterus:
lies in pelvic cavity just behind urinary bladder
uterus:
myometrium is the muscle layer
uterus:
endometrium lost in menstruation
menopause:
end of repetitive menstrual cycle (ages 45-52)
vagina:
distensible tube about 10 cm long
vagina:
located between urinary bladder and rectum in the pelvis
bartholin's (greater vestibular) glands:
secretes mucous lubricating fluid
bartholin's (greater vestibular) glands:
ducts open between labia minora
breasts:
located over pectoral muscles of thorax
breasts:
size determined by fat quantity
breasts:
lactiferous ducts drain at nipple, which is surrounded by pigmented areola
female external genitals include:
mons pubis, clitoris, orifice of urethra, bartholin's glands, vagina, labia minora and majora, hymen
menstrual cycle:
involves many changes in the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and breasts
menstrual cycle:
lasts about 28 days, varies from month to month among individuals and in the same individual
menstrual cycle:
each cycle consists of three phases: menses, proliferative phase, secretory phase
menses:
about the first 4 or 5 days of the cycle
menses:
characterized by sloughing bits of endometrium (uterine lining) with bleeding
proliferative phase:
between menses and secretory phases
proliferative phase:
varies in length; characterized by repair of endometrium
secretory phase:
days between ovulation and next menses
secretory phase:
secretory about 14 days before next menses
in men and women the organs of the reproductive system are adapted for the specific sequence of functions that permit
development of sperm or ova, successful fertilization, normal development and birth of offspring
male organs:
designed to produce, store, and introduce mature sperm into the female reproductive tract
female organs:
designed to produce ova, receive the sperm, permit fertilization, facilitate fetal development and birth, and perform lactation