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86 Cards in this Set

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Wilhelm Wundt

Uses scientific methods to study psychological processes




writes first psychology textbook in 1874




Establishes first psychology research laboratory at the university of Leipzig, Germany in 1879

when did Wilhelm Wundt conduct the first psychology research

1879

structuralism

Edward Titchener, a student of Wundt, held thatcomplex conscious experiences could be brokendown into elemental parts or structures.





Functionalism

Advocated by William James and influenced by Darwin, functionalism focuses onhow behaviors function to allow people and animals to adapt to their environment.

who created the first American psychology laboratory?

William James

Psychodynamic

Unconscious mental processesshape feelings, thoughts, andbehaviors

Sigmund Freud

A therapist who theorized that all actions are rooted by thoughts of the unconscious mind

Unconscious

is the part of the mindthat operates outsideof conscious

Behaviorism

Psychologyredefined as thescientific study ofobservablebehavior

John B. Watson

behaviorist who conducted experiments known as 'Little Albert' on a baby

B.F. Skinner

Rejected the idea of studying inner thoughts and feelings. Rather he studied how consequences shape behavior.

Humanistic

Positive potential of human beings is assumed



Emphasis on self-determination, free will, and the importance ofchoice




A reaction to negative implications of Freudian and emphasis onexternal influences of the behaviorist school

Cognitive psychology
The scientific study of howperception, thought, memory, andreasoning are processed
Neuroscience
How the body and brainenable emotions,memories, and sensoryexperiences
Evolutionary

How the natural selectionof traits promoted thesurvival of genes

Basic research
builds psychology’sknowledge basethrough research andtraining
Applied research
tackles practicalproblems in industrialor other institutional/organizational settings
Correlation

Positive correlationsindicate that twofactors increase ordecrease together.




Negative correlationsindicate that as onefactor increases, theother decreases.




Correlation DOES NOT EQUAL Causation

Experimental Designs

Curiosity




Skepticism




Humility

Independent Variable (manipulation)

The factors that are not changed

Dependent Variable (effect)

the factors that could be changed

Experimental Group

the group of subjects being tested upon

Control Group

the group with out any testing in order to make sure the test is accurate

Random Assignment

when subjects are randomly placed into groups

Neuroplasticity
it refers to changes in neural pathways and synapses due to changes in behavior, environment, neural processes, thinking, and emotions
The Neuron (and its parts)
Neurotransmitters

neuron-produced chemicals that cross synapses to carry messages to other neurons or cells

Divisions of the nervous system

Central Nervous System
(brain and spinal cord)
Peripheral Nervous System
(connects CNS to rest of the body)
Somatic (Skeletal)

peripheral nervous system division controlling the body's skeletal muscles

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

peripheral nervous system division controlling the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)

sympathetic

autonomic nervous system subdivision that arouses the body mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

parasympathetic

autonomic system subdivision that calms the body conserving its energy

Cerebral Cortex – most mental processes

thin layer of interconnected neurons covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control information processing center

Temporal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes areas that receive information from the ears

Frontal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex that lies just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements

Parietal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

Occipital lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

Cerebral Hemisphere (Left and Right)
Left half controls right side of thebody & vice versa
Corpus Callosum

the bit that connects the left and right hemispheres

Thalamus
– The brains sensoryswitchboard, locatedon top of thebrainstem

– Sensory and motorneurons pass through


– Also involved in sleepand attention


– Serious damage#death

Hypothalamus

– Also involved in emotion, stress, and reward


– Homeostatic mechanism-- Regulator of the bodys internal state


If electrically stimulated, it gives a feeling of pleasure


– Pleasure-crazy rats


– A neural structurelying below thethalamus


– Works with thepituitary (master)gland


– Monitors threepleasurableactivities: Eating,drinking, and sex…as well as bodytemperature andblood pressure

Amygdala
Involved in emotionalawareness and expression,especially fear and anger

– Damage# uncontrolled rage


– Discrimination of objectsnecessary for survival, such asappropriate food, mates, andsocial rivals

Hippocampus
– Looks like a seahorse(???)

• Greek: hippokampos, amythical monster


– Determines whatmemories should beretained, or printed inthe cerebral cortex


– H.M. could not add newmemories

Schemas—assimilation and accomodation
SchemaConcept or framework that organizes and interpretsinformation

AssimilationInterpreting our new experiences in terms of ourexisting schemas


AccommodationAdapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

Sensorimotor -> concrete -> formal
• Tools for thinking and reasoning change withdevelopment

• Object permanence


• Awareness that things continue to exist even when notperceived

Object Permanence

The ability to understand things continue to exist even when they are not perceived

preoperational
Child learns to use language but cannot yet performthe mental operations of concrete logicConservation

Pretend play


Egocentrism

Egocentrism

the pre-operational child's difficulty understanding another's point of view

Conservation

the understanding that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in shapes

Attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver, and showing distress on seperation

Harry Harlow and surrogate monkey mothers

the experiment where the baby monkey preferred the soft fake mother rather than the metal one that gave food

Stranger Anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

Types of attachment (John Bowlby)

insecure attachment and secure attachment

Secure attachment

baby hates being separated from mother figure, and will be happy upon reunion

Insecure attachment (anxiety or avoidance)

anxiety: will cry when mother figure leaves and continue even when she returns


avoidance: won't care when she leaves or returns

Temperament (Easy or Difficult)
Difficult: Irritable, intense,and unpredictable



Easy: Cheerful, relaxed,and feeding and sleepingon predictable schedules

Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
Authoritative parents tend to have children with thehighest self-esteem, self-reliance, and socialcompetence



Permissive parents tend to have children who aremore aggressive and immature




Authoritarian parents tend to have children with lesssocial skills and self-esteem

Authoritative
Authoritarian parents set the rules and expectobedience



Authoritarian parents tend to have children with less social skills and self-esteem

Permissive
Permissive parents give in to their children’s desires,make few demands, and use little punishment



Permissive parents tend to have children who are more aggressive and immature

Authoritarian
Authoritative parents are both demanding andresponsive—they exert control by setting rules, butthey encourage open discussion and allow exceptions




Authoritative parents tend to have children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence



Levels of Moral Thinking (Kohlberg)
Use moral reasoning that develops in universalsequence to guide moral actions
Preconventional

self interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

Conventional

uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order

Postconventional

actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles

Difference between one’s sex and one’s gender
Sex: Biological status, defined by your chromosomes andanatomy



Gender: Culture’s expectations aboutwhat it means to be male or female

Physical differences between men and women (height, timing of puberty,longevity)
Women enter pubertysooner

live about 5years longer.


Women carry 70 percentmore fat


woman are 20 percent lessmuscle


woman are 5 inchesshorter.

Mental health differences (ADHD, autism, depression, eating disorders, suicide)
Men are 4 times more likelyto die by suicide or developalcohol dependence.

Men are more likely tohave childhood diagnosisof autism spectrumdisorder, color-blindness,or ADHD.


Men are more at risk forantisocial personalitydisorder.


Women have 2x risk ofdeveloping depression and10x risk of developingeating disorder.

Gender differences in aggression
Minor physical aggression: Men and women equal



Extreme violent acts: Men commit more than women




Relational aggression: Women more likely than men

Gender and social connections
Need to belong: All humans



Social connections: Females more interdependent;males more independent




Social connectedness: Boys typically form largegroups for active, competitive play; girls play in smallgroups and imitate social relationships


Social networks: Women’s networks are larger thanmen’s

Tend and befriend

woman are more likely to turn to others for support (tend and befriend)

Spermarche and Menarche

first ejaculation

Intersex

first menstrual period

Gender identity, gender role, gender typing

gender identity: our sense of being male or female




gender role: a set of expected behaviors




gender typing: the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role



Social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

Transgender

an umbrella term describing people whose gender or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex

Testosterone and estrogens

Testosterone: sex hormones for male characteristics


Estrogen: sex hormones that contribute to female sex characteristics

Sexually Transmitted Infections
Rates have increased in recent years, especially forpeople under 25.



CDC report: 14- to 19-year-old U.S. females found39.5 percent had STIs.




Condom use effective varies by infection (80 percenteffectiveness when used with infected partner; lesseffective with skin-to-skin STIs.




Significant link between oral sex and STIs.




Women’s AIDs rates increasing fastest.

Teen Pregnancy
Environmental factorscontribute to teenpregnancy

• Minimal communicationabout birth control


• Passion overwhelmingself-control


• Alcohol use


• Mass media norms ofunprotected promiscuity




Characteristics of teenswho delay having sex• High intelligence


• Religious engagement


• Father presence


• Participation in servicelearning program

Levels of Analysis for Sexual Motivation (biological, psychological, social-cultural)

biological pleasure plays a role but psychological and social cultural play an even bigger one

Same-sex attraction in other species

Same-sex sexual behaviors observed in several hundredspecies

Gay-straight brain differences
LeVay Postmortem brain structure research: Cell cluster in hypothalamus larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men, brain anatomy influences sexual orientation



Savic function studies: Differential brain arousal in straight men and gay men and straight and lesbian women

Genetic influences
shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than among fraternal twins



sexual attraction


in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated




male homosexuality often appears to be transmitted from the mother's side of the family

Parental influences
Hormonal changes duringcritical period in braindevelopment between 2nd and5th prenatal month may link tohomosexual behavior (animalstudy results).



Older-brother or fraternal birthordereffect appear to berelated to mother’s defenseresponses to earlier male fetus

Gay-straight trait differences
Gay men shorter andlesbian women heavierthan average at birth



Some spatial abilitydifferences reported




Straight males tend tofind this an easier taskthan do straightfemales, with gays andlesbians intermediate.(From Rahman et al.,2003