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13 Cards in this Set

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conciliar movement
What: sought to fasihon a church in which a representative council could regulate the actions of the pope
(During GREAT SCHISM)
Council of Pisa
(1409-1410)
Popes Urban VI and Clement VII's cardinals convened and deposed them and elected Alexander V as pope. Popes refused to step down.
Council of Constance
(1414-1417) SACROSANCTA- council asserted its supremacy and elected Martin V as pope, after the 3 other popes resigned/were deposed.
Council of Basel
(1431-1449) Peak of Conciliar government. Hussites of Bohemia presented the Four Articles of Prague:
1.giving laity Eucharist
2. free, itinerant preaching
3. exclusion of clergy from holding office and owning property
4. just punishment of clergy who committ mortal sins
1,2,4 were given
Execrabilis
A bull: Pope Pius II condemned councils as "erroneous and abominable"
Modern Devotion/Brothers of the Common Life
What: A boarding school for reform-minded laity.
Where: Zwolle and Deventer in the Netherlands (many houses)
Who: Nicholas of Cusa (philosopher), Hebraist Johannes Reuchlin, Desiderius Erasmus, Thomas a Kempis, .
Why: Clerics and laity share common life, stressing individual piety.
How: Education, ran hospices, prepare youth for priesthood.
A CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT. PREACHED IN VERNACULAR.
95 Thesis
What: Martin Luther's statement of reforms needed by the Catholic Church.
When: October 31, 1517
Where: The door of Castle Church in Wittenburg, Germany.
Why: Luther believed indulgences went beyond the traditional practice. (criticized Tetzel)
Influence: Spread by movable type, incited rebellion.
"justification by faith alone"
(sola fide)
Luther's insight into this concept was gradual between 1513-1518. The righteousness that God demands was not given to those who observed church service, but those who believe in Jesus and charity to one's neighbor. One should do good works not to get into heaven, but out of his own goodness. Freedom of a Christian summarizes this idea.
Luther's Challenge to Papal Infallibility
Luther debated the Ingolstadt professor John Eck in Leipzig on June 27, 1519. He challenged the infallibility of the pope and appealed to the sovereign authority of Scripture. He defended John Huss, who had been executed for heresy.
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
Martin Luther urges German princes to force reforms on the Roman church, especially to curtail its political and economic poewr in Germany..
Babylonian Captivity of the Church
Martin Luther attacks the 7 traditional sacraments, arguing that only baptism and the Eucharist were unquestionably biblical.
Reformation in Zurich
Ulrich Zwingli-leader who credits Erasmus over Luther as having set him on the path to reform. Had affair with barber's daughter. In 1519, competed for the position of priest in Zurich. He broke the Lenten fast and did not believe in practices that were not strictly stated in the Bible. Writes "Zwingli's Scripture Test". New regime imposed the first of harsh, puritanical Protestantism.
The Marburg Colloquy
Philip of Hesse wanted to unite Swiss and German Protestants for defense. Luther and Zwingli's bitter differences (esp. about Eucharist)spoiled his efforts. Hesse brings Luther and Zwinglis together in his castle in Oct. 1529 to work out differences.