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49 Cards in this Set

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12th Amendment
The Amendment (1804) that calls for seperate ballots to be used by the electoral college when voting for president and vice president. Before that, the president was the candidate who recieved most of the votes and the VP was the candidate who received the second most. Also, if there is no majority the HofR is to choose from the candidates with the three highest votes, not five as it was before.
25th Amendment
The amendment (1967) that establishes guidelines for filling the offices of president and vice president if they become vacant and make provisions for situations when the president is disabled.
Was created on the heels of events including the death of FDR, the serious illness of Eisenhower, and the assasination of JFK.
advice and consent
Power the Constitution (Article II, Section 2) grants the US Senate to give its advice and consent to treaties and presidential appointment of federal judges, ambassadors, and cabinet members.
appointment power
The president's authority to fill a government office or position. Positions filled by presidential appointment include those in the executive branch, the federal judiciary, commissioned officers in the armed forces, and members of independent regulatory commissions.
"beyond the beltway"
The part of the US outside of Washington DC. The "beltway" is a highway circling Washington DC
The president's core advisory group. The Cabinet presently numbers 14 department secretaries and the attorney general. Depending on the president, the Caniet may be highly influential or relatively insignificant in its advisory role.
State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health & Human Services, Housing & Urban Development, Education, Energy, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs.
cheif diplomat
The presidents role in recognizing foreign governments, making treaties, and making executive agreements.
cheif executive
The president's role as head of the executive branch of the government.
cheif legislator
The presidents role in influencing the making of laws.
chief of public opinion
presidential role as a chief communicator for the nation and the nation's symbolic leader.
Chief of Staff
The assistant to the president who directs the White House Office and advises the president.
chief of state
The presidents role as ceremonial head of the government.
civil service
A collective term for the employees working for the government. Generally, civil service understood to apply to all those who gain government employment through a merit system.
commander in chief
The president's role as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Cuard units when they are called into federal service.
This power is granted by Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution.
Council of Economic Advisors (CEA)
A staff agency, established in 1946, that advises the president on measures to maintain stability in the nation's economy.
economic chief
The presidential role involving management of the national economy. In this role, the president is responsible for smoothing out the rough edges of the capitalist business cycle by taking action to curb inflation, lower unemployment, and adjust the international trade balance.
emergency power
An inherent presidential power exercised during a period of national crisis, particularly in foreign affairs.
executive agreement
A binding international agreement between chiefs of state. Unlike treaties, these do require the consent of the Senate.
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
Established by President FDR by executive order under the Reorganization Act of 1939, the EOP no consists of nine staff agencies that assist the president in carrying out major duties.
executive order
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. Executive orders can implement and give effect to provisions in the Constitution, to treaties, and to statutes.
executive privilege
The right of officials in the executive branch to refuse to appear before, or to withhold information from, a legislative committee or judicial proceeding. Executive privilege is enjoyed by the president and by those executive officials accorded that right by the president.
expressed powers
Presidential powers expressly written into the Constitution or congressional statute.
federal budget
The estimate of the income and expenditures needed by the federal government to carry out its program in some future period, usually a fiscal year.
Federal Register
A publication of the executive orders, rules, and regulations of the executive brach of the US government, as well as bureaucratic rules.
formal presidential roles
Chief diplomat, chief executive, chief legislator, chief of party, chief of state, commandor in chief.
A formal accusation by the HofR, accusing the president, VP, or any civil officer of the US of "treason, birbery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". The Senate must then try the impeachment.
Authorized by Article I of the Constitution. Military officers and members of Congress cannot be impeached.
informal presidential roles
Roles not assigned by the Constitution that the president fills along with the formal roles that come with the position, including party chief, economic chief, and chief of public opinion
inherent power
Authority and power held by the national government but not specifically granted to it by the Constitution. These powers most commonly relate to foreign affairs and international relations. The powers of the federal government are delegated powers, meaning they must directly or implicitly granted. In foreign affairs, however, its presumed that the federal government has the same powers as other nations.
kitchen Cabinet
Informal advisors to the president. The phrase originated during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, who frequently met with friends and trusted advisors in the White House kitchen to discuss policy.
Can include members of the official cabinet but may not give the same advice as the official cabinet.
"leader of the free world"
The belief that the US, and in particular the president, is responsible for safeguarding the freedom and liberty of all nations. This belief grew from hostilities between the US and the USSR during the Cold War.
line-item veto
Executive power to veto specific items included in a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire piece of legislation.
National Security Council (NSC)
A staff agency in the Executive Office of the President that advises the president on matters relating to national security, both domestic and foreign. The NSC is made up of the president, VP, secretary of state, and secretary of defense. The director of the CIA and the joint chiefs of staff are statutory advisers; others may serve at the president's request.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
A division of the Executive Office of the President charged with running the government efficiently and economically, helping to prepare the annual budget as well as clear and coordinate the budgets of all departmental agencies, and helping to create fiscal policy.
Created by executive order in 1970, replacing the Bureau of the Budget. Includes the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs and the Council on Competitiveness, a secret body established by George Bush in 89 and headed by Dan Quayle.
Power to release a person from the punishment or legal consequences resulting from a crime. The president and govenors of 30 states have the right to gratn pardons within their respective areas of authority. In the other states govenors share the powers with special pardon board.
An absolute pardon fully restores the person to his or her position before conviction. A conditional pardon sets condition that the person must meet before the pardon is granted.
party platform
A document prepared by a political party, outlining its policies and objectives and used to win voter support during a political campaign. Candidates do not feel obligated to fulfull the items laid out in a platform if elected to office.
Appointing government jobs and contracts to faithful party workers as a reward for their contributions. Unrestricted patronage came about with Andrew Jackson's spoils sysytem and began to lose influence with the Civil Service Act of 1883.
plebiscitary presidency
A model fo presidentially centered government in which a president seeks to govern through direct support of the people. Under this theory, presidential power and legitimacy emanate from citizen support, as measured in public opinion polls; presidents directly link to citizens through television; and presidents find themselves unalbe to deliver on promises made to citizens due to structural barriers inherent in our governmental system.
pocket veto
The chief executive's special veto power exercised after the legislative body adjourns. By not signing a passed bill within a specific time, the chief executive in effect "vetoes" the bill. If the legislature wishes to have the bill passed, it must reconsider the bill again in its next session.
political party chief
The role of the president as the nation's partisan political leader.
power to persuade
A president's ability to bargain with political actors and get them to fall into line with his agenda. It was claimed by political scientist Richard Neustadt to be the most important of the president's powers, in his 1960 book Presidential Power.
split-ticket voting
Voting for a candidate from one party for one office and a candidate(s) from another party for another office.
State of the Union message
The message to Congress in which the president lays out a legislative program. The Constitution requires the message to be given from time to time, but it has become customary for the President to deliver it every January, at the beginning of the legislative term.
not originally a very dramatic event; early presidents sent it in the form of a letter. Radio and TV greatly increased its importance by making it a media event and providing the president an audience with the American people and the rest of the world.
statutory power
Power created by laws that Congress establishes. These powers may be given to the president or to other political actors such as bureaucratic agencies.
veto message
A presidential explanation to Congress detailing reasons for vetoing a piece of legislation.
veto power
A legislative power of the chief executive to return a bill unsigned to the legislative body.
vice president
The second highest executive officer of the US, who is also the presiding officer of the Senate.
War Powers Act (1973)
A law specifying certain conditions the president must meet to commit US troops without the approval of Congress. It attempted to close a loophole by which presidents were able to get around the constitutional requirement that only Congress can declare war.
Washington community
People who play a regulary role in Washington DC's political scene.
White House Office
The group of advisers set up by the president without Congressional ratification who tend ot his political needs, advise him, and act as his intermediaries with the press and Congress. Included in this group is the Chief of Staff.