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31 Cards in this Set

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In the active voice, the subject performs?
The action expressed by the verb. The subject acts. (Jack invited Ann.)
In the passive voice, the subject?
Receives the action expressed in the verb. [Ann was invited (by Jack). The subject (Jack) of the active verb follows BY in the passive sentence.]
The noun that follows BY, in the passive voice, is called?
The “agent”.
In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes?
The subject of the passive verb. [(Ann, object of the active verb (invited) becomes the subject of the passive verb (was invited).
Do the sentences, JACK INVITED ANN and ANN WAS INVITED (BY JACK) have the same meaning?
Yes.
How is the passive voice formed?
By using the verb TO BE (as an auxiliary) + the past participle of the active verb.
The passive can be used with any tense by changing?
The tense of the verb TO BE. (The kids ARE taught. The kids ARE BEING taught. The kids HAVE BEEN taught. The kids WERE taught.)
When we change from ACTIVE voice to PASSIVE voice, do we change the auxiliary verb tense?
No. (I WAS teaching the kids. The kids WERE being taught).
What tenses are generally not used in the passive voice?
The present perfect continuous, the past perfect continuous, the future continuous, and the future perfect continuous.
When is the agent is omitted in the passive sentence?
Often, when the subject of the active sentence is not so important to the meaning of the whole sentence, such as somebody, someone, people, we, they, you, he, etc. (Someone stole my purse. My purse was stolen.)
When the agent is a specific or important person or organization, or it is essential to the meaning of the whole sentence can it be omitted?
No. (My daughter drew this picture and my son drew that one. This picture was drawn by my daughter and that one was drawn by my son.)
We use the expression BY + agent to say?
Who or what does something.
To say what the agent uses, we use the expression?
With + material / instrument. (The cake was made by Tom. It was made with eggs, cheese, flour and milk.)
In the question form of passive voice, where is the auxiliary verb placed in relation to the subject?
It precedes the subject. (ARE the kids taught? WERE the kids being taught? HAVE the kids been taught? WILL the kids be taught?
When we want to find out who or what did something, then the passive question form as?
Who/What + auxiliary verb + subject… + by/with? (Who was America discovered by? What was the cake made with?)
None
When can we not change an active sentence into the passive?
When the verb is an intransitive verb (verbs that can not be directly followed by an object). (A hurricane came last month.)
COME, HAPPEN, SLEEP, SEEM, TRAVEL, etc. are examples of?
Intransitive verbs that can’t possibly be used in the passive.
While only transitive verbs (verbs that can be followed by an object) are used in the passive, name some transitive verbs that are not used in passive?
SUCH HAVE, FIT, SUIT, RESEMBLE, etc. (This coat FITS me well. (BUT NOT) I’m FITTED by this coat well.
When a verb takes two objects (indirect and direct objects), can either object become the subject of a passive sentence?
Yes. [Adrian sent Peter an e-mail. Peter was sent an e-mail by Adrian. (more common) An e-mail was sent to Peter by Adrian. (less common)]
When the DIRECT object becomes the subject, is TO usually kept in front of the indirect object?
Yes. (Adrian sent Peter an e-mail. An e-mail was sent TO Peter by Adrian.)
What are examples of verbs which take two objects?
GIVE, TEACH, THROW, WRITE, AWARD, HAND, SELL, ALLOW, PASS, LEND, POST, PROMISE, BUY, TELL, OFFER, TAKE, etc.
Can a verb be followed by a bare infinitive in the active?
Yes, some? (I heard them sing last night.)
When a sentence that has a verb followed by a bare infinitive is changed into the passive, what happens to the verb?
The should be followed by a full infinitive. (I heard them sing last night. They were heard to sing last night.)
Using the sentence, “I believed that he stole the camera" the verb BELIEVE is used in what passive patterns?
He was believed to have stolen the camera. It was believed that he stole the camera.
Other verbs like BELIEVE, that can be used in personal and impersonal constructions in the passive voice, include?
THINK, BELIEVE, SAY, REPORT, KNOW, EXPECT, CONSIDER, UNDERSTAND, etc
The passive is most frequently used when it is not known or not important to know?
Exactly who performs an action. So the BY-phrase is included only if it is important to know who performs the action. (My house was built in 1999. The picture was drawn by my son.)
Usually if the speaker knows who performs the action, what voice is used?
The active is used. (My son drew the picture.)
When would might we choose to use the passive with BY-phrase, even we speaker knows who performs the action?
When we want to emphasize "what happened" or " what was done" rather than "who did it". (This picture was drawn by my son and that picture was drawn by my daughter.)
When a verb in past participle functions as an adjective, they describe?
The state of the subject of the sentence. (The vase is broken.)
When the passive form is used to describe an existing situation or state, it is called?
The stative passive. (I’m interested in your class. I’m lost. Are you done with your work?)
In the stative passive no action is taking place (the action happened earlier), there is no BY-phrase and the past participle functions as?
An adjective as well (She’s contented with her life. He’s worried about his safety. He’s qualified for this position.)