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99 Cards in this Set

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101
Abraham
circa 2000BCE
Founding father of Israelites, Arabs & Edonite peoples (according to Judaism, Christianity and Islam)
102
Aesop
mid 6th Century CBE
A greek slave wot told stories
103
Howard Hathaway Aiken
1900-1973
A pioneer in computing, the primary engineer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer
104
Susan B Anthony
1820-1906
American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in securing women's suffrage in the US
Voted in 1872 election, arrested and then fined in 1873.
105
St. Thomas Aquinas
1225-1274
106
Archimedes of Syracuse
287-212BCE
Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer
A leading scientist in classical antiquity.
Responsible for the foundation of hydrostatics, explained principles of the lever, pioneer of calculus...
107
Aristarchus of Samos
310-230BCE
He was the first person to present an argument for a heliocentric model of the solar system, placing the Sun, not the Earth, at the center of the known universe (hence he is sometimes known as the "Greek Copernicus"). He was influenced by his teacher, the pythagoréan Philolaus of Kroton, but in contrast to Philolaus he had both identified the central fire with the Sun, as well as putting other planets in correct order from the Sun. His astronomical ideas were rejected in favor of the geocentric theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy until they were successfully revived and extensively developed by Copernicus nearly 2000 years later.
108
Neil Armstrong
Born 1930
A former American astronaut, test pilot, university professor, and naval aviator. He is the first person to have set foot on the Moon. His first spaceflight was Gemini 8 in 1966, for which he was the command pilot. On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two spacecraft together with pilot David Scott. Armstrong's second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing mission on July 20, 1969.
109
Charles Babbage
1791-1871

An English mathematician, philosopher, mechanical engineer and (proto-) computer scientist who originated the idea of a programmable computer. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In 1991, working from Babbage's original plans, a difference engine was completed, and functioned perfectly. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked.
110
Jeremy Bentham
1748-1832

An English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He was a political radical and a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law. He is best known as an early advocate of utilitarianism and animal rights[1][2] who influenced the development of liberalism.
111
Otto von Bismark
1815-1898
A Prussian and German statesman of the 19th century, born to a wealthy family. As Minister-President of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the Unification of Germany. From 1867 on, he was Chancellor of the North German Confederation. When the German Empire was declared in 1871, he served as its first Chancellor, gaining the nickname "Iron Chancellor".
112
Robert Boyle
1627-1691
An Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. He is best known for the formulation of Boyle's law. Although his research and personal philosophy clearly has its roots in the alchemical tradition, he is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry. He is very famous in the science world for being the first scientist that kept accurate experiment logs. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry.
113
Louis de Broglie
1892-1987

French physicist and Nobel Prize laureate, known for wave properties of electrons and wave mechanics
114
Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot
1796-1832

A French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the foundations of the second law of thermodynamics. Technically, he is the world's first thermodynamicist, being responsible for such concepts as Carnot efficiency, Carnot theorem, Carnot heat engine, and others.
115
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
1500-1558

Charles V (or Charles I of Spain) (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Aragon (1516-1556), King (until 1555 on behalf of his mother the queen Joana I) of Castile (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558). In Spain, though he is often referred to as Carlos V or Carlos Quinto, he ruled officially as Carlos I, Charles I of Spain.

He was the son of Philip of Burgundy and Joanna the Mad of Castile. His paternal grandparents were Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy whose daughter Margarete of Austria raised him. His maternal grandparents were Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, whose marriage had first united their territories into what is now modern Spain, and whose daughter Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England and first wife of Henry VIII. His cousin was Mary I of England who married his son Philip.

Charles V's reign introduced the first documented use of the styles of His Majesty or His Imperial Majesty. Because of his far-reaching territories he was described as ruling an Empire "in which the sun does not set".
116
Cheops (Khufu)
2589-2566BCE
Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. He is generally accepted as being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing.
117
Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi)
1130-1200
A Song Dynasty Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. His contribution to Chinese philosophy included his grouping of the Four Books, his emphasis on the investigation of things (gewu) and the synthesis of all fundamental Confucian concepts.
118
Winston Churchill
1874-1965
A British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. A noted statesman, orator and strategist, Churchill was also a soldier in the British Army. He has been studied to a unique extent as part of modern British and world history. A prolific author, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his own historical writings.
119
Karl von Clausewitz
1780-1831
A Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. He is most famous for his military treatise, Vom Kriege (On War)
120
Rudolf Clausius
1822-1888
A German physicist and mathematician, considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he put the theory of heat on a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, on the mechanical theory of heat, published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy.
121
Marie Curie
1867-1934
Polish-French physicist and chemist. She was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity, the first twice-honored Nobel laureate in Physics & Chemistry (and still today the only laureate in two different sciences), and the first female professor at the Sorbonne. Discovered Radium & Polonium together with her husband Pierre in 1898.
122
Gottlieb Daimler
1834-1900
was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist, born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg) what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development.
123
Dante Alighieri
1265-1321
an Italian poet from Florence. His central work, the Commedia (The Divine Comedy), is considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature. In Italian he is known as "the Supreme Poet" (il Sommo Poeta).
124
Darius the Great
549-486/5 BCE
King of Persia from 522-486/5 BCE
Organizer and administrator of the Persian Empire.
125
King David
1005-970BCE
The second king of the united Kingdom of Israel. He is depicted as a righteous king—although not without fault—as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician and poet (he is traditionally credited with the authorship of many of the Psalms). His life and reign, as recorded in the Hebrew Bible's books of Samuel (from I Samuel 16 onwards) and Chronicles, have been of central importance to Jewish and Western culture.
126
Democritus
460-370BCE
A pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, born in Thrace, student of Leucippus and co-originator of the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable, indivisible elements which he called atoma (sg. atomon) or "indivisible units", from which we get the English word atom. It is virtually impossible to tell which of these ideas were unique to Democritus and which are attributable to Leucippus.
127
Mary Baker Eddy
1821-1910
founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in 1879 and was the author of its fundamental doctrinal textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
128
Robert C.W. Ettinger
1918-...
Known as "the father of cryonics" due to the impact of his 1962 book The Prospect of Immortality. He is considered by some a pioneer transhumanist on the basis of his 1972 book Man into Superman.

Robert Ettinger founded the Cryonics Institute and the related Immortalist Society and until 2003 served as their President. His first and second wives have both been cryopreserved as well as his mother.
129
George Fox
1624-1691
An English Dissenter and a major early figure — usually considered the founder — of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers. Living in a time of great social upheaval, he rebelled against the religious and political consensus by proposing an unusual and uncompromising approach to the Christian faith. His journal is a text known even among non-Quakers for its vivid account of his personal journey.
130
Benjamin Franklin
1706-1790
One of the most critical Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a leading author, political theorist, politician, printer, scientist, inventor, civic activist, and diplomat. As a scientist he was a major figure in the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation,[1] and as a diplomat during the American Revolution, he secured the French alliance that helped to make independence possible.
131
Frederick the Great
1712-1786
King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. In his role as a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he was Frederick IV (Friedrich IV.) of Brandenburg. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed der alte Fritz ("Old Fritz").
132
Betty Friedan
1921-2006
An American feminist, activist and writer, best known for starting what is commonly known as the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book The Feminine Mystique.
133
Galen
129-200/16
Galen (Claudius Galenus) of Pergamum was a prominent ancient Greek physician, whose theories dominated Western medical science for over a millennium. The forename "Claudius", absent in Greek texts, was first documented in texts from the Renaissance.
134
Mohandas K. Gandhi
1869-1948
A major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer of Satyagraha — the resistance of tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded upon ahimsa or total non-violence — which led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is commonly known in India and across the world as Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit: mahātmā — "Great Soul") and as Bapu (Gujarati: bāpu — "Father"). In India, he is recognized as the Father of the Nation.
135
Karl Friedrich Gauss
1777-1855
A German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. Sometimes known as "the prince of mathematicians" and "greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had a remarkable influence in many fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history's most influential mathematicians.
136
Hammurabi
1810 BCE – 1750 BCE
(Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, "the kinsman is a healer," from ˤAmmu, "paternal kinsman," and Rāpi, "healer")
The sixth king of Babylon. He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire, extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms.

Hammurabi is known for the set of laws called Hammurabi's Code, one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. Owing to his reputation in modern times as an ancient law-giver, Hammurabi's portrait is in many government buildings throughout the world. Although his empire controlled all of Mesopotamia by the time of his death, his successors were unable to maintain his empire.
137
Han Wu Ti (Emperor Wu of Han)
156-87 BCE
The seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under his reign, as well as the strong and centralized Confucian state he organized. He is cited in Chinese history as one of the greatest emperors.
138
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
1770-1831
A German philosopher and one of the representatives of German idealism.
Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions including both his admirers (Bauer, Marx, Bradley, Sartre, Kung) and his detractors (Schelling, Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Heidegger). Hegel made explicit, arguably for the first time, a relation between nature and freedom, immanence and transcendence, the finite and the infinite which unified these dualities intelligibly without eliminating either pole or reducing it to the other. His influential conceptions of speculative logic or "dialectic," "absolue idealism," Spirit," the "Master/Slave" dialectic, "ethical life," and the importance of history, flow from this central accomplishment.
139
Henry VIII
1491-1547
King from 1509-1547
CAABJSACKHCP

King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. Henry was then the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry VIII is infamous for having been married six times. He wielded perhaps the most unfettered power of any English monarch, and brought about the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the union of England and Wales.

Henry VIII was the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. His elder brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, leaving Henry as heir to the throne.
140
Henry the Navigator
1394-1460
141
Theodor Herzl
1860-1904
An Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist who founded modern political Zionism.
142
Hippocrates
460-370BCE
An ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, and was considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as The Father of Medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic school of medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus making medicine a profession.
143
Thomas Hobbes
1588-1679

An English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the agenda for nearly all subsequent Western political philosophy.

Although Hobbes is today best remembered for his work on political philosophy, he contributed to a diverse array of fields, including history, geometry, theology, ethics, general philosophy, and what would now be called political science. Additionally, Hobbes's account of human nature as self-interested cooperation has proved to be an enduring theory in the field of philosophical anthropology.
144
James Hutton
1726-1797
A Scottish geologist, noted for formulating uniformitarianism and the Plutonist School of thought. He is considered the father of modern geology.
145
Akhenaten (or rarely alt: Ikhnaton)meaning Effective spirit of Aten, first known as Amenhotep IV (sometimes read as Amenophis IV and meaning Amun is Satisfied) before his first year, was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, especially notable for attempting to compel the Egyptian population to monotheistically worship the Aten. Although there are doubts as to how successful he was at this, it was the first known attempt at monotheism the world had seen. He was born to Amenhotep III and his Chief Queen Tiye and was their younger son. Akhenaten was not originally designated as the successor to the throne until the untimely death of his older brother, Thutmose.

Amenhotep IV succeeded his father after Amenhotep III's death at the end of his 38-year reign, possibly after a coregency lasting between either 1 to 2 or 12 years. Suggested dates for Akhenaten's reign (subject to the debates surrounding Egyptian chronology) are from 1353 BC-1336 BC or 1351 BC–1334 BC. Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti, who has been made famous by her exquisitely painted bust in the Altes Museum of Berlin.
146
Isaiah
Born early 8th century BC
The main figure in the Biblical Book of Isaiah, and is commonly considered to be its author.
147
Joan of Arc
1412-1431
A 15th century national heroine of France. She was tried and executed for heresy when she was only nineteen years old. The judgment was broken by the Pope and she was declared innocent and martyr twenty-four years later. She was beatified in 1909 and canonized as a saint in 1920.
148
Joseph Marie Jacquard
1752/7-1834

A straw hat maker before becoming a French silk weaver and inventor, who improved on the original punched card design of Jacques de Vaucanson's loom of 1745, to invent the Jacquard loom mechanism in 1804-1805. Jacquard's loom mechanism is controlled by recorded patterns of holes in a string of cards, and allows, what is now known as, the Jacquard weaving of intricate patterns.
149
Immanuel Kant
1724-1804
A German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He is regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment.
150
John Maynard Keynes
1883-1946

A British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments' fiscal policies. He advocated interventionist government policy, by which the government would use fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions, depressions and booms. These monetary measures have lead to inflation of the money supply. Economists consider him one of the main founders of modern theoretical macroeconomics. His expression "In the long run, we are all dead" is much quoted and is used to justify many confiscatory policies.
151
Har Gobind Khorana
1922-...

An American molecular biologist born of Indian Punjabi heritage in British India. He was awarded the Nobel prize (shared with Robert W. Holley and Marshall Warren Nirenberg) in 1968 for his work on the interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1966. He currently lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States serving on the MIT Chemistry faculty.
152
Martin Luther King Jr.
1929-1968

One of the main leaders of the American civil rights movement. A political activist and Baptist minister, he is regarded as one of America's greatest orators. King's most influential and well-known public address is the "I Have A Dream" speech, delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. in 1963. In 1964, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races). On April 4, 1968, King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
153
Alfred C Kinsey
1894-1956

An American biologist and professor of entomology and zoology who in 1947 founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University, now called the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction. Kinsey's research on human sexuality profoundly influenced social and cultural values in the United States and many other countries in the West which went through the sexual revolution starting in the 1960s.
154
Kublai Khan
1215-1294

A Mongol military leader. He was the fifth Khagan (1260–1294) of the Mongol Empire as well as the founder and the first Emperor (1271–1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty.

Born the second son of Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki and the grandson of Genghis Khan, he succeeded his older brother Möngke in 1260. Kublai Khan's brother, Hulagu, conquered Persia and founded the Ilkhanate. Kublai also had a cousin named Kaidu, who died in 1301.
155
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
1646-1716

The German polymath
156
Etienne Lenoir
1822-1900

French-Belgian engineer who developed the first internal combustion engine in 1859
157
Leonardo Da Vinci
1452-1519

An Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer.
158
Abraham Lincoln
1809-1865

The sixteenth President of the United States, March 4, 1861 to April 15, 1865. As an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery and a political leader in the western states, he won the Republican Party nomination in 1860 and was elected president later that year. During his term, he helped preserve the United States by leading the defeat of the secessionist Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. He introduced measures that resulted in the abolition of slavery, issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and promoting the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.
159
Emperor Gaozu of Han
(Liu Pang)

256/47-195 BCE

The first Emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only a few dynasty founders who emerged from the peasant class (the other major example being Zhu Yuanzhang founder of the Míng Dynasty). Before becoming an emperor, he was also called Duke of Pei (沛公) after his birthplace. He was also created as the Prince of Hàn by Xiang Yu, the Grand Prince of Western Chu following the collapse of Qín Dynasty, and was called so before becoming emperor.
160
Louis XIV

1638-1715

King of France and of Navarre.

He acceded to the throne on May 14, 1643, a few months before his fifth birthday, but did not assume actual personal control of the government until the death of his First Minister ("premier ministre"), Jules Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661. Louis would remain on the throne till his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday in 1715.

The reign of Louis XIV, known as The Sun King (in French Le Roi Soleil) or as Louis the Great (in French Louis le Grand, or simply Le Grand Monarque, "the Great Monarch"), spanned seventy-two years—the longest reign of any major European monarch. During that period of time he increased the power and influence of France in Europe, fighting three major wars—the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession—and two minor conflicts—the War of Devolution, and the War of the Reunions.
161
James Madison
1751-1836

An American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817) and one of the most influential founding fathers of the United States. Considered to be the "Father of the Constitution", he was the principal author of the document. In 1788 he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers, still the most influential commentary on the Constitution. AS a leader in the first Congresses, he drafted many basic laws and was responsible for the first ten amendments to the Constitution, and thus is also known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights".
162
Ferdinand Magellan
1480-1521

Portuguese-born maritime explorer who at the service of Spain, tried to find a westward route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. This voyage became known as the first successful attempt at circumnavigation of the Earth. Magellan himself did not complete his final westward voyage; he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines.
163
The Virgin Mary
164
Emperor Meiji (Emperor Musuhito)

1852-1912
The 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death.
165
Mehmed II

1432-1481

Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446 and later from 1451 to 1481. At the age of 21 he conquered Constantinople bringing an end to the medieval Byzantine Empire. From this point onward, he claimed the title of Caesar in addition to his other titles.
166
Montesquieu
(Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu)

1689-1755

a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He was largely responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine Empire.
167
Maria Montessori
1870-1952

An Italian physician, educator, philosopher, humanitarian and devout Catholic; she is best known for her philosophy and method of education of children from birth to adolescence. Her educational method is in use today in a number of public as well as private schools throughout the world.
168
Samuel Morse

1791-1872

An American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code.
169
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

1756-1791
170
Muawiya I

Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān (602-680) was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs. He engaged in a civil war against the fourth Rightly Guided caliph, Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law) and met with considerable military success, including the seizure of Egypt. He assumed the caliphate after Ali's assassination in 661 and reigned until 680.
171
Gerard K. O'Neill
1927-1992

A U.S. physicist and space pioneer.

Born in Brooklyn, he graduated from Swarthmore College in 1950, and received a doctorate in physics from Cornell University in 1954. He joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1954, with which he remained associated until his death. Dr. O'Neill's early research focused on high-energy particle physics; notably he invented the particle storage ring.
172
Blaise Pascal

1623-1662

A French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the construction of mechanical calculators, the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote powerfully in defense of the scientific method.
173
Ivan Pavlov

1849-1936

a Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research pertaining to the digestive system. Pavlov is widely known for first describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs.
174
Marco Polo

1254-1324/5

A trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels recorded in the book Il Milione "The Million" or The Travels of Marco Polo
175
Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus)


90-168

An Alexandrian mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer in Roman Egypt. Although no description of his family background or physical appearance exists, it is likely he was born in Egypt and studied in Alexandria.
176
Pythagoras

Between 580 and 572 BCE and between 500 and 490 BCE
177
Rembrandt

1606-1669

a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history.[citation needed] His contributions to art came in a period that historians call the Dutch Golden Age.
178
Franklin Delano Roosevelt

1882-1945

The thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. A central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war, he has consistently been ranked as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents in scholarly surveys.
179
Adi Shankara

788-820

The first philosopher to consolidate the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, a sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are bsed on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. In the Smarta tradition, Adi Shanakara is regarded as an incarnation of Shiva.
180
Sargon of Akkad
181
Edwin Schrodinger

1887-1961

an Austrian - Irish physicist who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933. In 1935, he proposed the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
182
William B. Shockley

1910-1989

Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation. In his later life, Shockley was a professor at Stanford, and he also became a staunch advocate of eugenics.
183
Joseph Smith

1805-1844

An American religious leader who founded the Latter Day Saint movement, a restorationist movement also known as Mormonism. Smith's followers declared him to be the first latter-day prophet, whose mission was to restore the original Christian church, said to have been lost soon after the death of Apostles because of an apostasy. This restoration included the establishment of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and the publication of the Book of Mormon and other new scriptures. As a leader of large settlement communities, Smith also became a political and military leader in the American Midwest.
184
Socrates

470-399BCE
185
Sophocles

495-406BCE

The second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. He was preceded by Aeschylus and was followed by or contemporary to Euripedes. According to the Suda, a tenths century AD encyclopedia, he wrote 123 or more plays during the course of his life. For almost 50 years, he was the dominant competitor in the dramatic competitions of ancient Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. His first victory was in 468 BC, although scholars are no longer certain that this was the first time that he competed.
186
Sun Yat-sen

1866-1925

A Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the "father of modern China". Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. He was the first provisional president when the Republic of China (ROC) was founded in 1912 and later co-founded the Kuomintang (KMT) where he served as its first leader. Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and remains unique among 20th-century Chinese politicians for being widely revered in both Mainland China and in Taiwan.
187
Tamerlane

1336-1405

Timur bin Taraghay Barlas known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent, conqueror of much of western and central Asian and founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty (1370-1405) in Central Asia, which survived in some form until 1857. An estimated 17 million people died from his conquests.
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Emperor Taizong of Tang

599-649

The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
189
Edward Teller

1908-2003

A Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb."
190
Henry David Thoreau

1817-1862

An American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
191
Leo Tolstoy

1828-1910

A Russian writer - novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher - as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. He is perhaps the most influential member of the aristocratic Tolstoy family.
192
Charles H. Townes

1915-...

An American Nobel Prize-winning physicist and educator. Townes is known for his work on the theory and application of the maser, on which he got the fundamental patent, and other work in quantum electronics connected with both maser and laser devices. He received a B.A. and B.S. from Furman University, an M.A. from Duke University, a Ph.D. from Caltech, and is currently a professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
193
Harry S. Truman

1884-1972

The thirty-third President of the United States (1945-1953); when Vice President, he succeeded to the office on the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt
194
Selman A. Waksman

1888-1973

An Ukrainian-American biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition lead to the discovery of Streptomycin, and several other antibiotics. A professor of biochemistry and microbiology at Rutgers University for four decades, his work led to the discovery of over twenty antibiotics (a word which he coined) and the procedures that have lead to the development of many others. The proceeds earned from the licensing of his patents funded a foundation for microbiological research, which established the Waksman Institute of Microbiology located on Rutgers University's Busch Campus in Piscataway, New Jersey (USA). In 1952 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition for his discovery of "streptomycin" the first antibiotic active against tuberculosis.
195
James D Watson

1928-...

An American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".
196
Mary Wollstonecraft

1759-1797

A British writer, philosopher and feminist. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason.
197
Frank Lloyd Wright

1867-1959
198
Vladimir Zworykin

1889-1982
A Russian-American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology. Zworykin invented a television transmitting and receiving system employing cathode ray tubes. He was instrumental in the practical development of television from the early thirties, including charge storage-type tubes, infrared image tubes and the electron microscope. Several biographers have called him the "true" inventor of television, although there remains healthy dispute about this designation.
199
William Henry Fox Talbot

1800-1877

An early photographer who made major contributions to the photographic process. He is remembered as the holder of a patent which affected the early development of photography in England, and made some important early photographs of York - see "Nathaniel Whittock's bird's-eye view of the City of York in the 1850's" by Hugh Murray.