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20 Cards in this Set

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Neuron
Cell specialized for the conduction and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system.
Glial cells
The support cells associated with neurons (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia in the central nervous system; Schwann cells in peripheral nerves; and satellite cells in ganglia).
synapse
Specialized apposition between a neuron and its target cell for transmission of information by release and reception of a chemical transmitter agent.
Synaptic Terminal
A presynaptic (axonal) ending.
Axon
The neuronal process that carries the action potential from the nerve cell body to a target.
Action Potential
The electrical signal conducted along axons (or muscle fibers) by which information is conveyed from one place to another in the nervous system.
Synaptic Transmission
The process by which infomation encoded by action potentials is passed on at synaptic contacts to the next cell in the pathway.
Chemical Synapse
Synapse that transmit information via the secretion of chemical signals (neurotransmitters).
Synaptic Vesicles
Spherical, membrane-bound organellesin presynaptic terminals that store neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitter
Substance realeased by synaptic terminals for the purpose of transmitting information from one nerve cell to another.
Neurotransmitter Receptor
A molecule specialized to bind any one of a large number of chemical signals, preeminently neurotransmitters.
Astrocytes
One of the three major classes of glial cells found in the central nervous system; important in regulating the ionic milieu of nerve cells and, in some cases, transmitter reuptake.
Oligodendrocytes
One of three classes of central neuroglial cells; their major function is to elaborate myelin.
Myelin
The multilaminated wrapping around many axons formed by oligodendrocytes or Schwann cells.
Schwann Cells
Neuroglial cells in the peripheral nervous system that elaborate myelin (named after the 19th century anatomist and physiologist Theodor Schwann).
Microglial cells
One of the three main types of central nervous system glia; concerned primarily with repairing damage following neuornal injury.
Neuropil
The dense tangle of axonal and dendritic branches, and the synapses between them, that lies between neuronal cell bodies in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord.
Afferent Neurons
An action that conducts action potentials from the periphery toward the central nervous system.
Efferent Neurons
An axon that conducts information away from the central nervous system.
Interneuron
Technically, a neuron in the pathway between primary sensory and primary effector neurons; more generally, a neuron that branches locally to innervate other neurons. Also, known as a local circuit neuron.