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44 Cards in this Set

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oxygen revolution
between about 2 billion and 400 million years ago. activity of photosynthetic autotrophs chanced the composition of the atomosphere from less than 1% free oxygen to present of more than 20%
phylum
a group of animals that shares a similar archetecture, level of complexity and evolutionary history
animal
multicellular organism unable to syntizise its own food and often capable of movement
poriferea
a type of invertebrate that are most primitive animals. all sponges are suspension feeders (strain plankton and tiny food particles from surrounding water).
define a suspension feeder
strain plankton and tiny organic food particles from the surrounding water for food.
Phylum Cnidaria
jellyfish, sea anemonies and corals belong here. this group takes its name from the stinging cells called cnidoblasts for protection. radial symmetry
two forms of cnidarians
medusa: a bell shaped creature with tentacles

polyp: no skeleton and attach fully to the substrate.
zooxanthellae
single-celled, symbiotic dinoflagellates which carry on photosynthesis, absorb waste products, grow and divide within the central host.
at what rate do coral animals grow in ideal conditions?
1 cm per year
What is a very well known dinoflagellate?
Zooxanthellae, but this is not free living and lives inside an organism
what is bioluminescense?
process by which energy from a chemical reaction is transformed into light energy. this occurs in dinoflaggellates
what is a red tide?
red tides are the bloom of dinophytes, there is so many that it gives the water a rusty red color.
what percentage of food on earth is resposible by photosynthesis of phytoplankton?
45%, they also are a large contributor of O2 to the atmosphere
What are animals?
Animals are active, multicellular organisms incapable of synthesising their own food (heterotrophs)
In evolution, when did animals come about?
.75 Billion years ago when oxygen was peaking
Which types of animals first arose?
invertebrates, animals without backbones
Phylum Porifera
contains sponges, most primitive of true animals, suspension feeders, no nervous, respitory or circulatory system, collar cells line central cavity: capture plankton.
Phylum Cnidaria
This phylum takes its name from the large stinging cells called cnidoblats. It is known for its radial symmetry, central mouth and body radiate out. They have a primitive network of nerves, no excretory or circulatory systems, they depend on diffusion to move waste and gas.
Cnideria body plan
medusa or polyp, medusa (jellies) mouth at top, the tenticles hang down. Specialization of tissues, excrete calcium carbonate (skeleton), have a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae
Phylum Cnideria, class anthrozoa
sea anemonie, single corals and reef building corals
phylum Cnideria, class hydrozoa
polyp and medusa forms. colonial: formed by one fertalized egg that buds off to form seperate organisms. NOT JELLIES, ex. portugese man of war
phylum Cnideria, class scyphozoa
all the jellies
Phylum Platyhelminthes
flatworms, have a centralized nervoud system (brain), have a head, eye spots (detect light and dark), no true respitory or excretory systems
phylum nemotoda
roundworms. most basic phylum with a digestive system. parasitic and free living, important in soil ecosystem
phylum annelida
Most advanced worms, they are segmented. each segment has its own system for digestion, reproduction, circulation, etc (called METAMERISM). These are free living worm forms, can be made of sediment, hard shells or carbonate homes.
Phylum Annelida, Class Polychaeta
most abundant class of annelids. some worm-like, some form tubes. Major predators.
phylum mollusca
Made up of many different body forms but always have digestive tract, foot and a shell. bilateral symmetry, digestive tract, well-developed nervous system,
phylum mollusca, class gastropoda
limpets, snails and albone, conch, grazers and predators (scrape algae and kelp), shell of CaCO3. One type, the nuidibranch, acually contains no shell but has gills
pylum mollesca, class bivalvia
two shells, clams, oysters, mussels. Suspension feeders (filter feeders), two strong abductor muscles, filter water through gills, attached to substrate (use bistle threads that cement them, has some resistance).
phylum mollesca, class cephalopoda
predators such as the Nautilus, octopus, squid and cuddlefish. It is a head surrounded by a foot, divided into tentacles.
phylum anthropoda
most diverse of the species: lobsters, shrimp, krill, barnacles. Bodies are segmented with a pair of appendages per segment. Three main body parts:
1.) exoskeleton: made of chiton
2.) striated muscle: for rapid movement
3.) articulation: to bend appendages at specific points
what is molting?
to shed the exoskeleton
phylum anthropoda, class crustacea
lobster, crab, crawfish, krill
Phylum Echinodermata
bilateral symmetry in larval stage, radial symmetry. Sea stars, sea urchins, lack true eyes or brains, advanced nervous system, radially symmetrical, five sections.
Phylum Echinodermata, class echiniodea
Sea Urchins, CaCO2 test, spines, tube feet, main mouth piece, eat kelp
Phylum Echinodermata, class ophiuroidea
brittle stars, 5 arms, moveable, eats dead plant material
Phylum Echinodermata, class asteroidea
water vascular system: a complex of water filled canals, valves, and projections used for locomotion and feeding
phylum chordata
notochord- structural element that is a hollow, dorsal nerve cord. they also have pharyngeal gill patches or slits.
phylum chordata, subphylum urochordata
suspension feeder, colonial or solitary. salps join together to form huge colonies
amphioxus
transitional between an invertebrate and a vertebrate. nodocord, gill slits, no hard skeleton, no jaw
class agnatha
jawless fish (eg., hagfish, lamphrey).
class chondrichthyes
primitive, jawed fish, sharks and rawys, skeleton made of cartilage, predators, invertebrate feeders, filter feeders. for defense: barb on tail (stingrays), or electric shock (electric ray).
class osteichthyes, order teleosti
bony fish, most specious order,
problems that fish face
movement: viscosity (fluids resistance to flow), drag (resistance to movement of an organism), turbulance (chaotic boater movement around swimming organism)
Adaptations: teardrop shape, swimming, scales