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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the cns consists of
brain and spinal cord
the pns consists of
cranial nerves and spinal nerves
the ans is part of which divsion
pns
nerve cell
neuron
3 major parts of a nueron
cell body, dendrites and axons
carries impluses away from the cell body
axon
contain the nuclues of the nueron
cell body
carries impulses toward the body
dendrites
the space between the axon of one nueron and the cell body of the next nueron is called
synapse
in the pns the myelin sheath is made by cells called
schann cells
in the cns the myelin sheath is made by cells called
oligodendrecites
function of the myelin sheath
provides electrical insulation
in the pns the neuroleemma is formed by which parts of the schwann cells
nucleui and cytoplasm
the neurolemma permits________ regeneration of damaged axons or dendrites in the pns
regeneration
at synapses the nerve impulse is carried by a ____________ that is released by the synaptic knobs of the ____________ of a neuron
neurotransmitter, axon
the postsynaptic nueron contains an ______________ to prevent continous impulses by inactivating the neurotransmitter
inactivator chemical
name the inactivator for the nuerotransmitter acetylcholine
cholinesterase
neurons found entirley within the cns
internueron
carry impulses from receptors to the cns
also called efferent neurons
sensory neurons
carry impuslses from the cns to effectors
also called efferent neurons
motor nueron
made of both sensory and motor neurons
mixed nerve
a group of functionally related neurons within the cns
nerve tract
when a nerve is not carrying an impulse, its cell membrane has a _______ charge outside and ______ charge inside
positive, negative
the ions more abundant outside the cell
sodium
ions more abundant inside the cell
potassium
name for distribution of ions
polarization
depolarization is brought about by a stimulus, which makes the neuron membrane ver permeable to _________ ions which rush _________ the cell
potassium into
2 functions of the spinal cord
transmit impulses to and from brain
center for spinal cord reflexes
spinal cord is protected from mechanical injury by the
vertebrae
in length the spinal cord extends from the _____________ of the skull to the disc between the ________ vertebrae
foramen magnum 1st and 2nd lumbar
cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons are located in the
gray matter
the cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in the
dorsal root ganglion
dorsal root may also be called
sensory root
dorsal root is made of
sensory neurons
ventral root may also be called
motor root
ventral root is made of
motor nuerons
the ascending and decending tracts of the spinal cord are located in the
white matter
ascending tracts may be called _________ tracts because they carry impulses to the brain
sensory
descending tracts may be called ____________ because they carry impulses away from the brain
motor
cererospinal fluid is found within the
central canal
there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves state the # of each pair
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
8,12,5,5,1
group of spinal nerve
trunk of body
thoracic
group of spinal nerves
hips, legs, and pelvic cavity
sacral and lumbar
group of spinal nerves
neck, shoulders, and arms
cervical
group of spinal nerves
diaphram
cervical
involuntary response to a stimulus
reflex
the patellar reflex is an example of a stretch reflex, which means that the stimulus is _____________ and the response is ____________
stretched, to contract
every day importance of stretch reflexes
keeps body upright
everyday importance of flexor relexes
protects body from harm
four cavities within the brain
contain choroid plexuses that form cerebrospinal fluid
ventricles
regulates heart rate and respiration
regulates coughing and swallowing
regulates blood pressure
medulla
is anterior to the medulla and helps regulate respriation
pons
regulates visual and auditory reflexes
encloses the cerebral aqueduct and helps maintain equilibrium
midbrain
coordinates voluntary movements
regulates muscle tone and equilibrium
cerebellum
produces ADH and oxytocin,
regulates body temp and eating,
intergrates the functioning of the autonomic nervous system,
regulates the secretions of the anterior pituitary gland,
is the biological clock for the bodys daily rhythms
hypothalamus
intergrates sensations before relaying them to the cerebral cortex
suppresses unimportant sensations
thalamus
regulates accessory movements
basal ganglia
connects the cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
responsible for thinking and memory
cerebrum
motor area that initiate voluntary movement
motro speech area (left lobe only)
frontal lobe
general sensory areas for cutaneous sensations
taste areas, which overlap the temporal lobes
parietal lobes
auditory area, olfactory area
temporal lobes
visual area
occipital lobe
gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is called
cerebral cortex
cerebral cortex is made of___________ of nuerons
cell bodies
the 2 ventricles within the cerebral hemispheres are called _________ ventricles
lateral
the ventrical between the cerebellum and the medulla pons is called the _____ ventricle
fourth
the ventricle within the hypothalamus and thalamus is called the _________ ventricle
third
the tunnel through the midbrain called the __________ connects the third to the fourth ventricle
cerebral aqueduct
the meninges consist of how many layers of connective tissue
3
the outermost of the meninges is called the
duramater
the dura mater lines the
skull and vertebrae canal
the middle layer of the meninges is called
arachnoid membrane
the innermost layer of the menenges which is on the surface of the spinal cord and brain
pia mater
cerebrospinal fluid is formed from blood plama by capillary networks called __________ are found with the ________ of the brain
choroid plexes, ventricles
cerbrospinal fluid found within the brain are
ventricles
cerebrospinal fluid found around the brain
subarachoid space
cerebrospinal fluid found within the spinal cord
central canal
cerebrospinal fluid found around the spinal cord
subarhcanoid space
cranial nerve
vision
optic
cranial nerve
hearing
acoustic
cranial nerve
taste
facial and glossapharngeal
cranial nerve
smell
olfactory
cranial nerve
equilibrium
acoustic
cranial nerve
secretion of saliva
facial adn glossopharneal
cranial nerve
movement of eyeball
ocularmotor, troclear, and adducens
cranial nerve
peristalis of intestine
vagus
cranial nerve
decreasing the geart rate
vagus
cranial nerve
speaking (larynx)
vagus and accessory
cranial nerve
movement of the tongue
hypoglossal
cranial nerve
contraction of the shoulder muslce
accessory
cranial nerve
constriction of pupil of eye
ocularmotor
cranial nerve
sensory in cardiac and respiratory reflexes
glossopharneal and vagus
cranial nerve
sensation int he face and teeth
trigeminal
cranial nerve
contraction of muscles of the face
facial
cranial nerve
contraction of chewing muscles
trigeminal
the ans consists of motor neuron to viseral effector which are______ muslce, _________muscle and ______
smooth, cardiac, and glands
the part of the brain that integrates the functioning of the ans is the
hypothalamus
two divisions of the ans are
sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic divison dominates _________ situations
stressful
parasympathtic divison domiantes in __________ situations
non stressful
2 principal types of cells
nuerons and neuroglia
afferent nerves transmit stimuli to the brain and spinal cord
sensory neuron
efferent nerves transmit impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands
motor nueron
branching cytoplamic projections that recieve impulses and transmit them to the cell body
dendrites
structure containing nucleus
cell body
longest single projection that transmits the impulse from the cell body
axon
consisting of the brain and spinal cord
cns
consisting of all other neural elements of the body
pns
motor impulses travel primarily to muscles causing them to __________ and causing glands to ______
contract and secrete
primarilty enterates with neves
somatic nervous system
sends impulses to glands
autonomic nervous system
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glue, neurolgia
kinesi/o
movement
mening/o
meninges
neur/o
nerve, nervous system
-algesia
pain
-esthesia
feeling, sensation
a group of axons and dendrites of many nuerons
nerve
group of nuerons within the cns
nerve tract
phrenic spinal nerves c3-c5
diaphragm
spinal nerve
skin and muscles of posterior arm, forearm, and hand, thumb and first 2 fingers
radial
spinal nerve
intercostal muscles, abdominal muscles, skin of trunk
intercostal
spinal nerve
skin and muscles of posterior thigh, leg, and foot
sciatic
those that do not depend directly on the brain
spinal cord reflexes
pathway nerve impulses travel when a feflex is elicited
reflex arc
consists of many parts that function as an integrated whole
brain
major parts of the brain are the medualla, pons, midbrain collectivley called
brain stem
the folds in the erebral cortex are called
convolutions
the grooves in the cerebral cortex are called
fissures
from the cranial subarachnoid space, cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed through
arachnoid villi
large veins within the double layered cranial dura mater
cranial venous sinuses
transmitter released by all preganglionic neuronsm, both sympathetic and parasympathetic
acetylcholine
most sympathetic postganglionic neurons release the transmitter ________ at the synapses with the effector cells
norepinephrine