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109 Cards in this Set

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A loose sac of skin that constricts & expands dividing the testicles into 2 sacs .
Scrotum
The Septum that divides the testicles responsible for controlling body temperature
Medium Raphe
What are the 4 main components of the scrotum?
Testes,
Epididymis,
Spermatic Cord,
Vas Deferens, vessels
What are the 3 layers of the Scrotum?
Skin
Dartos
Tunica Vaginalis
The layer of muscle that forms the Median Raphe or septum of scrotum below the skin.
Dartos
A place where nerves, vessels, and lymphatics cover testes.
Tunica Vaginalis
Male reproductive gland that have both Endocrine & Exocrine functions producing both sperm and testosterone.
Testes
What is the size of the testes?
4 x 3 x 2cm
What is the Exocrine functions of the testes called? What does it produce?
Gametogenesis
Production of sperm
A double layer of peritoneum where hydrocele forms that lines the scrotal sac internally.
Tunica Vaginalis
What are the endocrine functions in the testes?
Synthesis/secretion of testosterone & steroids; also determines male characteristics.
Comma shaped structure on posterior/lateral border of testis.
Epididymis
aka "Ductus Deferens"
Vas Deferens
A convoluted organ posterior to bladder.
Seminal Vesicles
Thickened portion of the Tunica Albuginea that courses cranio-caudally
Mediastinum Testes
Fibrous capsule which encases entire testes surrounded by the "Tunica Vaginalis".
Tunica Albuginea
Allows for entering and exiting of testicular vessels & ducts in the scrotum.
Mediastinum Testes
What are the functions of the epididymis?
Transport & maturation of spermatozoa
3-6cm in length, isoechoic to testes, and travels posterior - lateral.
Epididymis
An echogenic line that helps form the "mediastinum Testis".
Tunica Albuginea
Superior to testes that contains ducts that transport sperm out of the testes.
Head of Epididymis
What is located on the posterior lateral aspect of the testes?
Body of Epididymis
A continuation of the epididymis to the prostate gland.
Vas Deferens
Where is the Rete Testis located and what is it?
Located in head of testes, a minitube that carries sperm.
Is usually only seen with hydrocele and on inferior- posterior portion of testes.
Tail of epididymis
Thin walled 4 1/2" tube that pumps sperm into the prostate gland.
Vas Deferens
Place where sperm is stored up to several months.
Epididymis
Posterior to bladder that aids in production of seminal fluid & acts as a reservoir emptying during ejaculation.
Seminal Vesicles
What is the main function of the Vas Deferens?
Transport Sperm to Prostate
What are the 4 testicular arteries?
Spermatic
Testicular
Epididymal
Deferential
Testicular artery that supplies extratesticular structures, including the epididymis.
Deferential Artery
A network of small veins in the spermatic cord that drains the testes & epi- into the IVC.
Pampiniform Plexus
A network of tiny tubules in the testes that constantly produce sperm.
Seminiferous tubules
A symptom of a pituitary tumor and cause of infertility.
Decrease in Testicular size
Allows the testes to move w/in the scrotum and controls the body temperature.
Cremasteric Plexus
Forms the stalk on which testes & epi hang.
Spermatic Cord
Pedicle that encases the Vas Deferens & contains vessels/ elements that enter or leave the scrotum.
Spermatic Cord
aka Cryptorchidism
Undescended Testicles
Drains the Epididymis Body & Tail.
Cremasteric Plexus
Has complications of malignancy, Torsion, & Infertility
Cryptorchidism or "Undescended Testicle"
When and where do testicles descend?
36 weeks through Inguinal Canal.
Acute pain from twisting of the testicle & spermatic cord compromising vascularity.
Testicular Torsion
What is the most common GU anomaly in male infants?
Undescended Testicles
What is the ultrasound appearance of undescended testicles?
Less Echogenic then healthy tissue
What can cause a sudden onset of severe pain in the testicles?
Torsion, Epididymitis, Epididymorchitis, Abscess formation, & Strangulated Hernia.
Rupture of the Tunica Albuginea due to trauma.
Testicular rupture
70-80% of all inflammatory cases that causes sudden, acute pain.
Epididymitis
What is the most common age for testicular torsion?
12-18 years old,.. 13 is peak
What causes the abnormal suspension of the testes within the scrotum?
Testicular torsion
When is immediate surgery needed for torsion? When does incomplete infarction occur?
80-100% salvagable at 4-6 hours; after 12 hours get complete infarction
48X more likely to undergo a malignant change.
Undescended testicle

(and 10X more likely to torse)
When is the testes hyperechoic with torsion? What type of flow results?
Within the 1st 4 hours; absence of flow in testis and epididymis
Acute Torsion has what type of scrotal wall?
Normal scrotal wall,

thick wall with chronic
within 72 hours its 90% salvagable, after 72h it's 45% or ess.
Testicular Rupture
When is the testis hypoechoic with torsion?
After 1st 4 hours
bacterial infection with an unknown cause from UTI, trauma, or STD.
Epididymitis.
Causes increased vascularity, hypoechoic epi, and thick epi wall.
Epididymitis
Due to untreated epididymitis
Epididyorchitis
Can create a hematocele, blood in testicle & irregular capsule.
Testicular Rupture
What are the 4 types of scrotal masses?
Hydrocele, spermatocele,
Testicular hernia, Variocele
Benign cysts consisting of nonviable sperm w/in the epididymis.
Spermatocele
Very common to have after surgery especially a vasectomy.
Spermatocele
Dilated testicular veins of the spermatic cord due to an obstruction.
Variocele
Accumulation of serous fluid btwn the layers of the Tunica Vaginalis surrounding testis.
Hydrocele
Painless cyst in head of epi that can have septations & easily compressed.
Spermatocele
aka "Tunica Albuginea Cysts"
Extratesticular cysts
Testicular condition that can displace the testes anteriorly.
Variocele
Inguinal hernia that descends into the scrotum
Variocele
Associated with Cryptorchidism, sterility, tumors, or infection.
Testicular Calcifications
Dilatation of the pampiniform plexus > 2mm that can cause infertility problems.
Variocele
Chronic inflammation that result in non-shadowing microlithiasis.
Testicular calcifications
Peristalsing loops of bowel seen within the scrotum descending through the tunica vaginalis.
Scrotal Hernia
Tiny calcifications throughout both testes <3mm.
Microlithiasis
2-19cm cysts near mediastinum
Intratesticular cysts
Get leukocytosis, fever, chills from post-op infections in testicle.
Testicular Abscess
What is the most common primary male Neoplasm?
Seminoma
What are the 4 types of Germ Cell Tumors?
ChorioCarcinoma,
Embryonal Cell CA,
Seminoma,
teratoma
aka "Teratocarcinoma"
Teratoma
Homogeneous, well defined testicular lesion.
Seminoma
Very small, rare testicular CA type that is very malignant and most seen in 20's & 30's.
ChorioCarcinoma
Gynecomastia occurs with this type of testicular lesion.
Choriocarcinoma
This germ cell tumor occurs in 20-30% of this very small, undetectable tumor.
Embryonal Cell CA
Most Common Germ Cell Testicular Tumor in childhood and 2nd most common of all Testicular cancers.
Embryonal Cell CA
Most common testicular tumor in men in their 40's and 50's.
Seminoma
Poorly defined complex mass that occurs from infancy to 30 y.o.
Embyonal Cell CA
Best prognosis, least aggressive testicular malignant lesion.
Seminoma
Aka "Yolk Sac Tumor" if occurs in infancy.
Embryonal Cell CA
Occurs in Infancy, early childhood, then in 30's, causing elevated HCG & AFP.
Teratoma
What are the 3 zones of the prostate?
Peripheral,
Central Zone,
Transitional Zone
What is a common Stromal Cell malignant tumor that can produce hormonal changes?
Leydig Cell Tumor
Most common malignant tumor that arises fom Cryptorchidism.
Seminoma
Fibromuscular tissue that surrounds the neck of the male bladder & urethra.
Prostate gland
Painless hypoechoic mass that is typically benign but can turn Malignant.
Leydig Cell Tumor
Tumor that causes testicular necrosis, hormonal changes, loss of libido, gynecomastia, virilization.
Leydig Cell Tumor

(A stromal cell tumor)
Tumor which contains cells from the different germ cell layers (5-10%) & Elevated HCG & AFP
Teratoma
Metastasis of testicle usually comes from what conditions?
Leukemia & Lymphoma
The place most prostate cancers occur in the largest outermost section.
Peripheral Zone (PZ)

(70% of cases)
Occurs in 10-20% of gland the innermost of prostate.
Transitional Zone
Enzyme that breaks down coagulated semen & secreted through the ducts w/in the prostate.
PSA

(prostatic specific antigen)
Why is serum PSA elevated in bloodstream?
BPH,
Infection,
Carcinoma
aka "PeriUrethral Area"
Transitional Zone of Prostate
Diffuse, benign prostate enlargement that begins from periurethral zone in prostate.
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

BPH
The most common prostate cancer in men over 60 years old.
Adeno Cancer of the Prostate
What are the symptoms of BPH elevation?
Bladder Retention, Blood in urine or semen, back/pelvic/ hip pain, Impotence
2 other levels that are elevated in Serum PSA test.
Alkaline Phosphatase &
Acid Phosphatase
What are the 3 causes of BPH elevation?
Aging, hormones, genetics
Has the same symptoms as with BPH due to primary bladder retention.
Adeno CA of the prostate
Associated with hormone production and most located in peripheral zone.
Adeno CA of the Prostate
Where does Adeno CA of the prostate usually metastasize to?
Bones