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62 Cards in this Set

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a theory which holds that human dvlp results from the dynamic interaction betwen dvlping persons and the surrounding culture, primarily as expressed by the parents and teachers who transmit it
Who is most associated w/ cognitive theory?
Jean Piaget
A persons entire genetic inheritance, including genes that are not expressed in person.
all the genetic traits, including physical characteristics and behavioral tendencies, that are expressed in a person
Zone of proximal development
The range of skills, knowledge, and understanding that an individual cannot yet perform or comprehend on his or her own, but could master w/ guidance, this is the area where learning occurs
(domain) the part of huan devlp. that includes emotions, personality, characteristics, and relationships w/ other people, family, friends, lovers, and strangers. This domain also includes the larger community and the culture.
Gross motor skills
physical skills involving large body movements such as waving the arms, walking, and jumping
Whole Child
A concept of the child being made up of parts - inseparable from the whole. The components of the whole child are the mind, body, feelings, and social content. Though theorists focus on one or more aspects of the child, the split from the whole is necessarily artificial.
fine motor skills
Physical skills involving small body movements, especially with hands and fingers, such as picking up a coin or drawing
Grand Theories
Insighful and provocative, stimulating to researchers, historians, educators, novelists, and therapists (Theories by Freud, Skinner and Piaget), these theories have made great contributions to dvlp. science
Cognitive theory
holds that the way people think and understand the world, shapes their perceptions, attitudes, and actions.
an organized pattern of perception or actions
Each of the various opportunities for protection, action, and interaction that an object or place offers to any individual.
What did Lev Vygotsky believe influenced development?
Social and cultural issues
Psychoanalytical theory
Freuds theory that states that human behavior is the result of unconscious drives and motivations
Object Permanence
The realization that objects (including people) still exist even when they cannot be seen, touched, or heard.
cognitive equilibrium
a state of mental balance, in which a person's thoughts and assumptions about the world seem (to that person) to clash with one another or with that persons experiences
Attachment 2
an effectional tie between two people with a consistent desire for contact and closeness
Jean Piaget
Believed less in teaching/more in letting a child explore and learn from a rich environment. focused on the "mind" of the whole child. Described stages that alway occur in the same order
Formal operational
Piaget's stage #4, 12-Adult
Able to think about abstract concepts. Ethics, politics, and social and moral issues become interesting, able to take a more theoretical approach to experiences
The concept that the total quantity, number, or amount of something is the same (preserved) no matter what the shape or configuration.
Sigmund Freud
Focused mostly on the feelings of the child. Originator of the psychoanalytical theory which he developed while working w/ the mentally ill
Integrity vs. despair
try to make sense out of your life when you ar older either meaningful or despairing
Behaviorist theory
the relationship between a stimulus and a response. uses conditioning. A theory used by BF Skinner
Attachment 1
an enduring emotional connection between 2 people that produces a desire for continual contact as well as feelings of distress during seperation
the tendency to perceive events and interpret experiences exclusively from one's own self-centered perspective.
When a person can take a more theoretical approach to experiences they are in which or Piaget's stages?
Formal Operational
In which of Piaget's stages does a child realize that when a person or object is not present, it still exists?
When a person is able to think about abstract and hypothetical concepts such as ethics, politics,and social and moral issues become interesting they are in which of Piaget's stages?
12- adult
In which of Piaget's stages does a childs imagination take off, and language become an important mean of self expression?
Preoperational ages 2-6
Anal Stage
Freuds Stage 2
Anus is the focus of pleasurable sensation, toilet training is the importnt activity 1-3 years
When a child gradually begins to "decenter" himself, become less egocentric, and starts understanding more points of view, which of Piaget's stages is he in?
identity vs. role confusion
Ericksons #5
Who am I? Adolescents establish sexual, political, and career identities and are confused on which roles to play
industry vs. inferiority
Erickson's #4
learn to be competent and productive in new skills, either they master the skill, or feel inferior and unable to do anything well 7-11 yrs
BF Skinner
focused on the body part of the whole child
believed that behavior is learned through conditioning and reinforcement
associated the sociocultural context w/ the whole child (also believed by Erickson), believed in the influence of social and cultural context on dvlpmnt
believed that children construct knowledge, they don't just take it in, believed in the power of language.
believed assisted performance is desireable
Classical conditioning
(Pavlov's dogs)
associating a neutral stimulus with a menaingfule one. Responds to the 1st stimulus as if it were the 2nd
Concrete operational
Piaget's stage#3, 7-11 years
Application of logical operations and principles to help understand basic concepts of conservation, numbers, classification and other scientific ideas.
Operant conditioning
Skinner believed this type of cond. an imptnt role in bhvr. and lrning. Through op. cond. we learn that a particular behavior produces a particular consequence. I if the consequence is good then we repeat behavior and if its bad then we don't repeat the behavior that caused it.
high risk infants
low birth weight
small for date
Freud's stages
1-oral birth to 1 yr
2-Anal 1 -3 years
3-Phallic 3-6 years
4-Latency 7-11 years
5-Genital Adolescence
What part of the child did Erickson focus on?
the feelings part
Erickson's Stages
1- Trust vs. mistrust b-1
2-Autonomy vs.shame&doubt 1-3
3-initiative vs. guilt 3-6
4-industry vs inferiority 7-11
5-identity vs confusion adlsnt
6-generativity vs stagnation middle ages
7-integrity vs despair older adult
Genital Stage
genitals are the focus of pleasure, the adolescent seeks sexual stimulatin and satisfaction in heterosexual relationships (adolescence)
What type of theories did Erickson use?
Psychoanalytic and sociocultural theories
What did Erickson think of Freuds stages?
That they were too limited, Erickson's stages contiued through the lifespan. Each of Ericksons stages has a particular challenge or crisis that is central to that stage of life and must be resolved.
Piaget's Stage 1 birth - 2yrs Through the use of senses and motor abilities the infant begins to understand the world. Begins to think through mental and physical actions. Knows that an object or person still exists when out of site.
antonomy vs. shame&doubt
Ericksons #2
Children learn to be self-sufficient in activities like feeding themselves, going to the potty, etc, or they doubt their abilities 1-3
initiative vs. guilt
Erickson's #3
Children want to do things that adults do, sometimes overstepping the limits of feeling guilty 3-6yrs.
Phallic Stage
Freud #3
the penis (phallis) is the most important part, pleasure comes from genital stimulation. Boys are proud of thier penis, girls wonder why they don't have one 3-6 years
Freud's #4
An interlude between stages, sexual needs are quiet, children put psychic energy into schoolwork and sports 7-11 years
genital stage lasts throughout adulthood, the goal of a healthy life is "to love and to work well'
generativity vs. stagnation
Middle aged adults contribute to next generation by work. Creative activities, or raising a family, or they stagnate
Oral Stage
Freuds Stage 1
Sucking and feeding are most stimulating activities. the mouth, tongue, and gums provide pleasurable sensations.
What is assisted performance?
lev Vygotsky's idea of giving a child a little help
Piaget's Stage #2, 2-6 years Symbolic thinking, like language, used to understand the world. Often thinking is egocentric, the child only understands the world through his or her perspective. The imagination takes off, language becomes an important means of self-expression and influence from others. The kids gradually begin to "decenter" or become less egocentric and to understand more points of view.
How did BF Skinner believe behavior is learned?
through conditioning and reinforcement
Piaget believed in less teaching and more what?
putting a child in a rich environment and letting them explore it - exploration
What theory is Piaget associated with?
The cognitive theory, which holds that the way people think and understand the world shapes them.
A baby uses senses and motor skills to understand the world in which of Piaget's stages?
Children begin to apply logical operations and principlies to help understand experiences objectively and rationally, rather then intuitively in which of Piaget's stages?
Concrete operational
Teratogen Agents
Substances, agents or events that interfere with embryonic or fetal dvlp.