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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The integumentary system consists of...
Cutaneous membrane
- Epidermis
- Dermis
Accessory structures
Subcutaneous layer
Accessory structures
Sweat glands
Integumentary system functions
Temperature maintenance
Nutrient storage
Vitamin D3 synthesis
Sensory detection
Thin skin/Thick skin
The epidermis is composed of keratinocytes --
Thin skin = 4 layers (strata)
Thick skin = 5 layers
Epidermis functions
Provides mechanical protection
Prevents fluid loss
Keeps microorganisms from invading the body
5 layers of the epidermis
(from deep to superficial)
Stratum germinativum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum
Stratum corneum
Found in thin & thick skin
15-30 layers of keratinocytes
Cells are dead
Tightly interconnected by desmosomes
Cells shed in sheets or large groups
Water resistant, not waterproof
Stratum lucidum
"clear layer"
Found ONLY in thick skin of palms & soles
Cells flattened, densely packed, & filled w/keratin
Last layer of living cells
Stratum granulosum
"grainy layer"
3-5 layers of keratinocytes
Most cells have stopped dividing
Cells making protein keratin & keratohyalin
Stratum spinosum
"spiny layer"
8-10 layers of keratinocytes
Contain Langerhans cells
Stratum germinativum
Also called stratum basale
Innermost epidermal layer
Forms epidermal ridges (i.e. fingerprints)
Contain basal cells (germinative cells)
Contain Merkel cells
Contain melanocytes
Basal cells
Stem cells whose divisions replace the more superficial keratinocytes that are lost or shed at the epithelial surface
Merkel cells
Specialized epithelial cells
Sensitive to touch
When touched, released chemicals that stimulate sensory nerve endings
Found on skin surfaces lacking hair
Langerhans cells
Participate in the immune response by stimulating a defense against
1) microorganisms that manage to penetrate the superficial layers of epidermis,
2) superficial skin cancer
Epidermal characteristics
Cells accumulate keratin & eventually are shed
Epidermal ridges are interlocked w/dermal papillae
-Improve gripping ability
Langerhans cells (immunity) in s. spinosum
Merkel cells (sensitivity) in s. germinativum
Skin color depends on...
Blood supply
Carotene & melanin
-Melanocytes produce melanin & protect from UV radiation
Epidermal pigmentation
-Interrupted blood supply leads to cyanosis
Blue skin due to no blood or low blood oxygen
1st degree burn
2nd degree burn
3rd degree burn
Hypodermis ("cooking the fat")
Epidermal cells
Synthesize Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) when exposed to UV
Respond to epidermal growth factor
The epidermis contains which type of tissue?
Stratified squamous epithelium
The dermis contains which types of tissue?
Muscle, nervous, & connective
Dermal organization
Papillary layer
-Contains blood vessels, lymphatics, sensory nerves of epidermis
Reticular layer
-Contains network of collagen & elastic fibers to resist tension
Stretch marks
Caused by excessive stretching of the dermis
Patterns of collagen & elastic fibers form lines of cleavage
Contains blood vessels
Dermis - yes
Epidermis - no
Dermal circulation & innervation
Cutaneous plexus arteries found in subcutaneous layer/papillary dermis
Cutaneous sensory receptors (light touch, pressure)
Contains fat
Stabilizes skins position against underlying organs & tissues
Originate in hair follicle
Composed of root & shaft
Root base (hair papilla) surrounded by hair bulb & root hair plexus
Hairs have soft medulla & hard cortex
Cuticle = superficial dead protective layer
Surrounded by epidermis & extends into dermis to level of subcutaneous
Hair types
Vellus hairs (peach fuzz - baby)
Terminal hairs (heavy - head & pubis)
Club hair (cessation of growth - beard, nostril, eyelashes)
-Shed & grow according to hair growth cycle
Arrector pili muscle
Attaches to hair
Causes hair to stand on end when frightened or cold
4 glands in the skin
Sebaceous glands
Discharge waxy sebum onto hair shaft when associated with hairs
Sebaceous follicles discharge onto epidermal surface
Suderiferous glands
Apocrine sweat glands
-Produce odorous secretion -Location: groin, armpit
Merocrine (eccrine) sweat gland
-Sensible perspiration
-Location: forehead, neck, back
Mammary glands
Structurally similar to apocrine sweat glands
Location: breasts
Secretion: milk
Ceruminous glands
Location: external ear
Secretion: earwax
Nail body covers the nail bed
Nail production occurs at the nail root
Eponychium (cuticle) overlies root
Free edge of nail extends over hyponychium
Local Control of Integumentary Function --

Injury & repair...
Regenerates easily
Regeneration process includes formation of -
Granulation tissue
Scar tissue
Aging & the Integumentary
System --

With age...
Integument thins
Blood flow decreases
Cellular activity decreases
Repairs occur more slowly