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168 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abdominal quadrants
four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury
RUQ
Right upper quadrant
LUQ
left upper quadrant
RLQ
Right lower quadrant
LLQ
left lower quadrant
acetabulum
the pelvic socket into which the ball at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint
acromioclavicular joint
the joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet
acromion process
the highest portion of the shoulder
alveoli
the microscopic sac of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place
anatomical position
the standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides, and palms of hand forward
anatomy
the study of body structure
anterior
the front of the body or body part
aorta
the largest artery in the body, transports blood from the left ventricle to begin systemic circulation
appendix
a small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. the function of it is not well understood. Its inflammation, called appendicitis, is a common cause of abdominal pain.
arteriole
the smallest kind of artery
artery
any blood vessel carrying blood AWAY from the heart
atria
the two upper chambers of the heart.
right atrium
receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body
left atrium
receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
automaticity
the ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own
autonomic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor function
bilateral
on both sides
blood pressure
the pressure caused by blood exerting force against the walls of the blood vessels, usually arteriole blood pressure (the pressure in an artery) is measured
brachial artery
artery of the upper arm, site of the pulse checked during infant CPR
bronchi
the two large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs, there are left and right bronchi, singular bronchus
calcaneus
the heel bone
capillary
a thin-walled, microscopic blood vessel where the oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient/waste exchange with the body's cells takes place
cardiac conduction system
a system of specialized muscle tissues which conduct electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat
cardiac muscle
specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart
cardiovascular system
the system made up of the heart (cardio) and the blood vessels (vascular)aka circulatory system
carotid arteries
the large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the head
carpals
the wrist bones
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord (CNS)
central pulses
the carotid and femoral pulses which can be felt in the central part of the body
clavicle
collarbone
coronary arteries
blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart
myocardium
muscle of the heart
cranium
the top, back and sides of the skull
cricoid cartilage
the ring-shaped structure that forms the lower of the larynx
dermis
the inner (second) layer of skin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath the epidermis
diaphragm
the muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, major muscle for respiration
diastolic blood pressure
the pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling
digestive system
system by which food travels through the body and is digested or broken down into absorbable forms
distal
farther away from the torso
dorsal
referring to the back of the hand or the back of the hand or foot, synonym for posterior
dorsalis pedis artery
artery supplying the foot, lateral to the large tendons of the big toe
endocrine system
system of glands that produce chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions
epidermis
the outer layer of skin
epiglottis
a leaf-shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from the trachea
epinephine
a hormone produced by the body, As a medication, it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions.
exhalation
a passive process which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphram relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of the lungs.
femoral artery
the major artery supplying the leg
femur
the large bone of the thigh
fibula
the lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
Fowler's position
a sitting position
gallbladder
a sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile produced by the liver
humerus
the bone of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow
hypoperfusion
inadequate perfusion of the cell and tissues of the body caused by insufficient flow of blood through the capillaries
ilium
the superior and widest portion of the pelvis
inferior
away from the head, usually compared to another structure that is closer to the head e.g. the lips are inferior to the nose
inhalation
an active process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphram contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs
insulin
a hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics
ischium
the lower, posterior portions of the pelvis
involuntary muscle
muscle that responds automatically to bring signals but cannot be consciously controlled
joint
the point where two bones come together
large intestine
the muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small intestine and removes anything not absorbed by the body towards excretion from the body
larynx
the voice box
lateral
to the side, away from the midline of the body
ligament
tissue that connects bone to bone
liver
the largest organ of the body, produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in the metabolism of various substances in the body
lung
the organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place
malleolus
protrusion on the side of the ankle, the lateral malleolus, at the lower end of the fibula, is seen at the outer ankle

the medial malleolus, at the lower end of the tibia is seen in the inner ankle.
mandable
the lower jaw bone
manubrium
the superior portion of the sternum
maxillae
the two fused bones forming the upper jaw
medial
toward the midline of the body
metacarpals
the hand bones
metatarsals
the foot bones
mid-axillary line
a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
mid-clavicular line
the line through the center of each clavical
midline
an imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into left and right halves
muscle
tissue that can contract that allows movement to a body part
musculoskeletal system
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement
nasal bones
the nose bones
nasopharynx
the area directly posterior to the nose
nervous system
the system of brain, spinal cord and nerves that govern sensation, movement and though
orbits
the bony structures around the eyes; eye sockets
oropharynx
the area directly posterior to the mouth
palmer
referring to the palm of the hand
pancreas
a gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and produces juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine
patella
knee cap
pelvis
the basin shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for the lower extremities
perfusion
the supply of oxygen to and removal of waste from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries
peripheral nervous system
the nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord and travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord.
peripheral pulses
the radial, brachial, posterior tibial pulses and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral points of the body
phalanges
the toe and finger bones
pharynx
the area directly posterior to the mouth and nose; made up of the oropharynx and nasopharynx
physiology
the study of body function
plane
a flat surfaced formed when slicing through a solid object
plantar
referring to the sole of the foot
plasma
the fluid portion of the blood
platelets
components of the blood; membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells
posterior
the back of the body or body part
posterior tibial artery
artery supplying the foot, behind the medial ankle
prone
laying facedown
proximal
closer to the torso
pubis
the medial anterior portion of the pelvis
pulmonary arteries
the vessels that carry blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
pulmonary veins
the vessels that carry oxygenated from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse
the rhythmic beats caused as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries
radial artery
artery of the lower arm, felt when taking the pulse from the wrist
radius
the lateral bone of the forearm
recovery position
lying on the side, also called lateral recumbent position
red blood cells
components of the blood, carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells
respiratory system
the system of nose, mouth,throat, lungs and muscles that brings oxygen into the body and expels carbon dioxide
scapulla
shoulder blade
shock
hypoperfusion; inadequate circulation of blood through one or more organs or structures
skeleton
bones of the body
skin
the layer of tissue between the body and external environment
skull
the bony structure of the head
small intestine
the muscular tube betweent the stomach and large intestine, divided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion, nutrients are absorbed by the body through its walls
spleen
an organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal that acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood
sternum
breast bone
stomach
muscular sac between the esophagus and the small intestine where digestion of food begins
subcutaneous layers
the layers of fat and soft tissue found below the dermis
superior
toward the head
supine
lying on the back
systolic blood pressure
the pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation, top number
tarsals
ankle bones
tendon
tissue that connects muscle to bone
thorax
the chest
tibia
the medial and larger bone of the lower leg
torso
the trunk of the body; the body without the head and extremities
trachea
the windpipe; the structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs
Trendelenburg Position
a position in which the patients feet and legs are higher than the head; also called shock position
ulna
the medial bone of the forearm
valve
a structure that opens and closes to permit the flow of a fluid in only one direction
vein
any blood vessels returning blood to the heart
venae cavae
the superior and inferior venae cavae; two major veins return blood from the body to the right atrium.
ventral
referring to the front of the body, anterior
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart, rt (sends oxygen poor blood to the lungs) and lf ventricle (sends oxygen rich blood to the body)
venule
the smallest kind of vein
vertebrae
the 33 bones of the spinal column
voluntary muscle
muscle that can be consciously controlled
white blood cells
components of the blood, produce substances that help the body fight infection
xyphoid
inferior portion of the sternum
zygomatic arches
form of the structures of the cheeks
Spinal Column
cervical 7 bones
thoracic 12 bones
lumbar 5 bones
sacrum 5 bones
coccyx 4 bones
Musculoskeletal System
gives body shape
protects internal organs
provides body movement
High Fowler
90 degree sitting position
3 types of muscle
cardiac
smooth
skeletal
carina
where the trachea biforcates
Number of Lobes on each side of the lungs?
3 on the right
2 on the left (room for the heart)
Symptoms of inadequate breathing
use of accessory muscles-retractions
needing effort to breath
pale
cyanotic/circumcyanosis
cool, clammy
agonal respirations
pursed lips
shallow quick breaths
PUMP
FLUID
CONTAINER
Heart
Blood
vessels
Coronary arteries
heart gets blood first from the aorta during rest, supplies blood to the heart
Top 3 organs necessary for life
heart
brain
kidneys
# of chambers in heart
4
Why are the muscles thicker on the bottom of the heart?
to pump the blood to the feet
Which part of the heart contracts first?
Atrium
PEA
pulseless electrical activity
when the heart's electrical activity is functioning but the mechanical part is not. There is no pulse. Asthma is often the cause of PEA.
asystolic, astylole
flatline, no electrical activity in the heart
Do veins or arteries have valves?
Veins-needed to push the blood back to the heart
Red blood cells
gives blood the color red
carries 02 to organs
carries CO2 away from organs to be excreted
white blood cells
helps fight infection
produces antibodies
platelets
clot forming cells
part of the rbc "the donut hole of the donut"
skin
largest organ in the body
parts of the skin
epidermis
dermis
subcutaneous