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56 Cards in this Set

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Describe 3 ways the skin goves the body protection.
*Protects body from invading microbes.
*From water loss.
*From UV light.
Describe 2 ways in which the skin helps regulate body temperature.
*Sweat glands evaporate cooling.
*Blood vessels expand when body is hot and contract when body is cold.
How does the skin give us information about our environment?
*Skin conatins sense receptors.
How does the skin give us information about our environment?
*Skin conatins sense receptors.
What are the 4 different sense receptors found in the skin.
*Pain
*Heat
*Cold
*Pressure
The outermost layer of the skin is called the 1.______. Give a breif description of its structure.
1.epidermis

structure= mostly dead cells and sheds continually.
The protein found in the epidermis that gives us waterproofing is called 1._______. The pigement that gives us UV protection is called 2.________.
1.keratin
2.melanin
Describe how new skin cells are "born" and what happens to them as they head to the surface of the skin. Be sure to know which layer of the skin goves rise to new skin cells.
*Skin cells are born in the lower part of the epidermis.
Describe 2 ways in which the dermis is different from the epidermis.
*Living
*Thicker
List 4 things that are found in the dermis that are NOT found in the epidermis.
*Blood Vessels
*Nerves
*Hair Follicles
*Sweat Glands
*Oil Glands
List 4 jobs of the skeletal system.
*Gives body support
*Moves your body
*Gives body shape
*Contains bones that are factories and wharehouses.
Contrast the axial skeleton with the appendicular skeleton.
*axial skeleton-includes bones that occur singly.
*appendicular skeleton-consists of bones that occur in pairs.
Name a substance produced by bones and give the location at which it is produced.
*red and white blood cells~in ends of bone in the red bone marrow.
Name a substance stored by bones and give the location at which it is stored.
*Fat, minerals(phosphate and calcium)~ stored inside yellow bone marrow inside long bones.
Describe skeletal muscle: location, appearance, and job.
location: makes up most of your body.
appearance: striated
job: voluntary
Describe cardiac muscle:location, appearance, and job.
location: found in heart
appearance:striated and branched
job:involuntary
Describe smooth muscle: location, appearance, and job.
location: in organs and blood vessels
appearance: non striated and has pointy ends
job: involuntary
Describe smooth muscle: location, appearance, and job.
location: in organs and blood vessels
appearance: non striated and has pointy ends
job: voluntary
Describe the things required by muscles to contract.
*For muscles to contract they require ATP.
Compare voluntary and involuntary muscles.
*Voluntary muscles: muscle that contracts under concious control.
*Involuntary muscles: muscles whose contractions that are not under conscious control.
Describe the main function of the digestive system.
*To break down food into simple molecules that can be used for energy.
Compare mechanical and chemical digestion.
Mechanical digestion - Prepares food particles for chemical digestion. Chemical digestion - Process of changing food on a molecular level.
Describe how both chemical and mechanical digestion begins in the mouth.
These processes are the chemical digestions of food.
What substance is broken down by salivary enzymes? 1.________ The name of the enzyme is 2. ___________.
1. Starch
2. Amylase
The structure that covers the opening of the windpipe when swallowing is the ______________________.
*Epiglottis
Movement of food down the esophagus by muscular contraction is called _______________.
*Peristalsis
Describe how both mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the stomach.
*Muscles churn and break food into smaller bits - mixed with hydrochloric acid.
*Pepsin digests protein
*Layer of mucus protects stomach.
*Liquid forced into small intestine.
The enzyme that begins to digest protein in the stomach is called __________________.
*Pepsin
What is the function of the thick layer of mucus covering the lining of the stomach?
*So the stomach won't digest itself
*So the stomach won't be broken down by its acid.
What is the most important thing that happens in the small intestine?
*Digestion is completed here: nutrients absorbed.
Describe how the structure of the small intestine is ideal for its primary function.
*Because liquid has to go through the small intestine because of its narrow diameter.
What is the role of the following accessory organs: Pancreas, liver, gallbladder?
*Pancreas - Secretes mix of enzymes to further break down carbs, proteins and fats.
*Liver - Produces bial to break down fats.
*Gallbladder - Bial is stored here until needed.
List two (2) functions of the large intestine.
1. Store food residues.
2. Absorb water.
Carbohydrates are broken down into 1.__________________; proteins are broken down into 2._____________; and fats are broken down into 3.___________________.
1. simple sugars
2. amino acids
3. fatty acids and glycerol
List 3 additional substances needed by the body for good nutritional health.
*Vitamins
*Minerals
*Water
What are the 2 main functions of respiration?
*Gets (O2)oxygen into the body.
*Gets CO2 out of the body.
Describe the process of by which oxygen and carbon dioxide get into and out of the blood.
*Through respiration- breathing (gas exchange in the lungs).
Describe red bloods cells. What allows them to carry oxygen?
*Red blood cells - carry O2 and CO2 in the blood stream - carried into plasma.
Most carbon dioxide is actually transported in ________________.
*Plasma
What is the job of the white blood cells? 1.____________________, of platelets?2._______________________.
1. Protect your body from disease.
2. Help your body clot.
Describe the structure of the human heart.
*Heart must pump blood to all the body cells and to the lungs to pick up O2 and drop off CO2.
*Has 4 chambers, 2 atria (above), and 2 ventricles (below).
*"duel pump"
What is the main function of the right side of the heart? 1._______________ Is the blood entering the right side of the heart oxygenated or deoxygenated? 2._______________Which vessels carry blood INTO the right side of the heart? 3.___________ Where does the blood go when it leaves the right side of the heart? 4._________________
1. Pumps blood to the lungs
2. Deoxygenated
3. Pulmonary artery
4. To the lungs to get O2
What is the main function of the left side of the heart? 1.___________ Is the blood entering the left side of the heart oxygenated or deoxygenated? 2.___________ Which vessels carry blood INTO the left side of the heart? 3._________ Where does the blood go when it leaves the left side of the heart? 4.______________
1. Pumps blood to all parts of the body
2. Oxygenated
3. Pulmonary veins
4. To the rest of the body
Describe the contributions of Dr. Charles Drew to blood technology.
*Discovered the process of storing blood in the form of plasma.
*Director of Red Cross Banks in the 1940's.
*Saved many lives in WWII.
Describe how the final products of digestion and the final products of respiration provide the necessary ingredients for cellular respiration.
*Digestion - The indigestible materials exit through the rectum.
*Respiration - Breathing
Compare the 2 systems that maintain homeostasis within the body. How are they different?
*Endocrine system - Uses hormones to send messages. Works slowly.
*Nervous system - Uses nerve cells to transport impulses - Works quickly.
The endocrine system sends messages using 1._____________. These "messengers" are produced by 2.____________. They act on specific organs called 3._____________.
1. Hormones
2. Endrocine glands
3. Target cells/organs
List 3 things that are hormonally controlled.
1. Growth
2. Blood sugar levels
3. Circadian rhythms (sleep/wake patterns)
The nervous system sends messages using ______________.
*Nerve cells
Describe what a nerve cell looks like.
*Dendrites- Carry info TO cell
*Axon - Carry info AWAY from cell
*Myelin Sheath - Surrounds axon; helps info travel - "insulation".
Describe the main parts of the brain and their functions.
Cerebrum - Largest part; controls senses, memory, language, and intelligence.
*Cerebellum - Controls balance and coordination
*Brain Stem - Controls involuntary actions (breathing)
Compare the CNS and PNS.
CNS - Includes brain and spinal cord
PNS - All the nerves - carries info to and from the CNS.
The sense of smell responds to 1._______ stimulation; the sense of taste responds to 2.________stimulation; the sense of sight responds to 3.________ stimulation; the senses of hearing, balnace and touch respond to 4.___________ stimulation.
1. Chemical
2. Chemical
3. Light
4. Mechanical
How does a vaccine work?
(Vaccine - small amounts of antigen weakened or dead)
*Cause your body to act as though you are weak and infected.
*You produce specific antibodies and become immune to that pathogen.
How does oxygen travel through the blood?
*by the binding of oxygen to the hemes in the hemogobin contained in the center of each red blood cells
How are messages carried from nerve to nerve?
*neurotransmiters carry the electrical signal between the gaps called synapses