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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adolf Hilter was appointed Chancellor of Germany on what date?
January 30, 1933
What happened on August 17, 1933
Haavara agreement concluded
On what date did the Jews organizations meeting in Geneva call for worldwide boycott of German products?
September 8, 1933
Upon the death of German President Hindenburg, Hilter became sole leader of Germany. What date did this happen?
August 2, 1934
On this date, Nuremberg Laws were proclaimed?
September 15, 1935
What happened on March 13, 1938?
Germany annexes Austria.
What took place on July 5-15 in 1938?
Evian Conference
"Kirstallnacht" or the night of Broken Glass happened on what date?
November 9-10 in 1938
Germany invade Poland, conquering the country within a month, on what date?
September 1, 1939
When was the first ghetto established?
November 28, 1939
On June 22, 1940 what happened?
France signs an armistice with Germany and leaves war
On November 15 of 1940?
Warsaw Ghetto sealed
June 22, 1941
Germany invades the soviet union
First mass killing of soviet jews
June 23, 1941
Goring orders Heydrich to arrange 'final solution of the Jewish question.
July 31, 1941
Wannsee conderence
January 20,1942
march 1942
First Killing of jews by gas at sobibor, belzec, and birkenuau
German defeats at El-Alamein and Stalinggrad; titd of war turns
November 1942
April 19-May 8 1943
Warsaw ghetto uprising
Allied invasion of Normandy
June 6, 1943
Auschwitz evacuated; prisoners begin death march
january 17, 1945
May 8, 1945
Germany surrenders
Asocials
Nazi term referring to habitual criminal, vagrants, and beggars. Believing that criminality and vagrancy were hereditary, the Nazi regime incarcerated and aterilised many whom they branded 'asocial' without reference to any specific crime.
German camp complex near the town of Oświęcim,in occupied Poland, 50 km west of Kraków. The main camp (Aushwitz I) was opened in June 1940 to house Polish prisoners. A large satellite camp, Birkenau (Auschwitz II), was built in late 1941, and a labour camp in the nearby village of Monowice (Monowitz or Aushwitz III) was operated by I-G Farben chemical concern form MAy 1942. The Auschwitz complex became the largest and most notorious of all Nazi camps. Because almost 1.5 million Jew were put to death in the killing centre at Bikenau, Auschwitz has become a primary symbol of the Holocaust.
Auschwitz
Bermuda Conference
Anglo-American conference on refugees held on the Caribbean island of Bermuda on April 19-30, 1943. It marked mostly by disagreements between the parties and the fear that concerted action to rescue Jews form Nazi-controlled Europe would interfere with the Allied war effort. The only substantive decision taken was to extend the mandate of the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees that had beeen established at the Evian Conference of 1938.
Birkenau
Satellite camp of Auschwitz, Know also a Auschwitz II, about 3 km form the main Auschwitz camp. Is also functioned as the largest of the Nazi killing centres: almost 1.5 Million Jews, 16,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and 20,000 Gypsies were killed there between January 1942 and November 1944. It was the primary killing centre to which non-Polish, non-Soviet Jews were deported.
The first Nazi killing centre. Located about 50 km west of Łódź, it employed sealed lorries for killing Jews by asphyxiation from exhaust fumes. Between December 1941 and March 1943 320,000 people were murdered there, mainly Jews from western Poland.
Chelmno
Concentration camps
Camps employed for Incarcerating political prisoners 'asocial', and other deemed undesirable by the Third Reich because of their beliefs, behavaiour, or presumed racial inferioity. They were not killing cantres of the type used for mass murder of Jews (although concentration camps were located next to the killing centres at Auschwitz and Majdanek).
Death March
Forced marches of prisoners over long distances, accompanied by brutal treatment. The term is most commonly applied to the march of prisoners from labour and labour and concentration camp east of Berlin during the frist four months of 1945, in flight from the advancing Soviet army.
(1906-62) SS offical, central architect of German murder programme. In 1938-39 he headed the Central Offices for Jewish Emigration in Vienna and Prague. Later he was appointed head of Jewish affairs for the RSHA. HE supervised the logistics of deporting Jews from throughout Europe to the Killing centres.
Eichmann, Adolf
Special task forces under SS supervision, deployed first in Poland and later in the Soviet Union for eliminating potential resistance to German rule. During the Invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, they bore a major part of the responsibility for carrying out mass shooting of Jews.
Einsatzgruppe
International conference on refugees, July 1938. Represn=entatives of 32 countries came together in an effort to coordinate plans to absorb Jewish and other refugees from Germany. The conference established the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, but it generated virtually no practical results.
Evian Conference
Genocide
Term coined by Raphael Lemkin in 1944 to refer to the destruction of a nation or ethnic group. The United Nations Genocide Convention of 1948 determined that genocide could occur through killing, torture, deprivation of adequate living conditions, or prevention of reproduction.
Ghetto
An urban area where Jews were compelled by law to reside. From the sixteenth to the eighteenth century ghettos were common in Italy and central Europe; that last such ghetto was dissolved in 1870. The Nazi revived the institution in occupied Poland and extended it to the Soviet territories conquered in 1941.
Goering, Hermann (1893-46)
Principal Nazi leader after Hitler and Hitler's designated auccessor. Holding the title Reich Marshal, he was interior minister of Prussia, head of the German air force, plenipotentiary of the Four-Year Plan for economic revival, and minister of the economy.
Haavara (Hebrew: Transfer)
1933 agreement between the Nazi government and agencies of the Zionist movement allowing German Jews Migrating to Palestine to transfer a portion of their assets with them.
Heydrich, Reinhard (1904-42)
Head of the RSHA, Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, and organizer of the Einsatzgruppen. Heydrich was one of the primary planners and excutors of the Nazi mass murder campaign.
Himmler, Heinrich (1900-45)
Head of the SS; along with Hitler and Goering the most powerful leader of the Third Reich. He oversaw the planning and execution of the Murder campaign, supervising the work of Heydrich and Eichmann.
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees
Body established by the Evian Conference in 1938. In 1939 it negotiated an arrangement allowing German Jews leaving the country to take their assets with them. The arrangment was not implemented due to the outbreak of war. During the war it was largely inactive.
Judenrat
Official Jewish administrations established at German behest in most east European Ghettos and in serveral other ocuppied countries.
Killing Centres
Term referring to six German-established location (Chełmno, Bełżec, Sobibór, Treblinkas, Majdanek, and Birkenau) to which Jews were transported from across Europe to be killed.
"Night of Broken Glass" Nazi-organized anti-Jewish riot of November 9-10, 1938, in which synagogues were burned and jewish proerty looted throughout Germany and Austria.
Kirstallnacht
Polish Jewish refugee legal scholar who coined the term 'genocide' in 1944.
Lemkin, Raphael (1901-59)
Madagascar Plan
Nazi plan to create a Jewish resvation on the east Afican island of Madagascar. Developed by the SS and the German foreign ministry, it received much attention within the Nazi regime in 1940, but it was abandoned late in the year, when the decision was taken invade the Soviet Union
Mein Kampf
Hitler's autobiography and main ideological tract, published 1925-28. Among other things, it is a principal source for the reconstruction of Hitler's ideas and plans concerning Jews.
Mischling
Category defined in the wake of the Nuremberg Laws, consisting of people with one or two Jewish grandparents who did not adhere to the Jewish religion and were not married to Jews. Because of their 'mixed blood', they were subject to certain restrictions in marriage and employment, which increased in severity in accordance with the percentage of Jewishness in an individual's pedigree.
Nazi party
Common name of the National Socialist German Workers Party, founded in 1919. Led By Hitler
Name for two German laws promulgated on September 15, 1935. The Reich Citizenship Laws stated that only people with pure German blood could be German citizens; all others were classified as 'subject'. The law for protection of German Blood and Honour outlawed marriages between citizens and subjects. In November 1935, at third catagory, Mischling, was added.
Nuremberg Laws
Resettlement in the east
German euphemism for deportation of Jews to killing centres.
Selection
Removal of young and healthy Jews form the ranks of those transported to killing centres, in order to exploit their labour or use them in medical experiments.
Sinti and Roma
The two largest European Gypsy groups, distinguished by language. Sinti were more numerous in Germany, Roma throughout Europe. The origins of both from the fifteenth century. There are many similarities between the treatment of Jews by the Third Reich and the treatment of Gypsies. Gypsies were victims of mass murder; estimates of the number killed range from 200,000 to 1,000,000
Sonderkommando
Name assigned to deportees selected upon arrival at killing centres to perform particularly gruesome duties associated with disposing of the bodies of the victims.
SS
Nazi police force
T4
the nazi name for killing the metally and physically disabled
Treblinka
German Killing centre midway between Warsaw and Bialystok. About 870,000 Jews were killed there between July 1942 and July 1943, almost all from the Generagouvernement.
Volk
German word meaing People. Hitler used it instead of race
Wallenberg, Raoul (1912-?)
Special rep. sent by the Swediah Foreign Ministr and US War Refugees Board to Budapest in 1944 to offer protection to Hungarian Jews threatened with death.
Wannsee Conference
Meeting held in Berlin January 1942 to establish a timetable and coordinate the logistics of the transportation of European Jews to the killing centres.
Yad Vashem
The offical Israeli institution for studying and commemorating the Holocaust.
Zionism
Modern Jewish political and ideological movement, that said that jews need their own nation
Zyklon B
Trade name of prussic acid or hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a lethak substance used in the gas chambers at Birkenau.