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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
atria
2 upper heart chambers
ventricles
2 lower heart chambers
myocardium
muscle of the heart
endocardium
thinlayer of very smooth tissue lining each chamber of the heart
endocarditis
inflammation of the lining of the heart
pericardium
membrane that surround the heart
virceral pericardium
the pericardium that covers the heart; also called the epicardium
epicardium
the inner layer of the pericardium that covers the surface of the heart; also called the visceral pericardium
parietal pericardium
pericardium surrounding the heart like a loose fitting sack to allow the heart enough room to beat
pericarditis
condition in which the pericardium becomes imflamed
cardiac temponade
compression of the heart caused by fliud build up in the pericardial space
systole
contraction of the heart muscle
diastole
relaxation of the heart, interposed between its contractions
AV or atrioventricular values
2 valves that separate the artial chambers from the ventricles
bicuspid or mitral valve
1 of 2 AV values, it is located between the left atrium and ventricle
tricupid valve
the valve located between the right atrium and ventricle
chordea tendineae
string like structure that attach the AV values to the walls of the heart
semilunar or SL valve
valves located between the 2 ventricular chambers and the large arteries that carry blood away from the heart;valvue found in veins
pulmonary semilunar valve
sem-i-valve located at the beginning of the pulmonary artery
aortic semilunar valve
valve between the aorta and left ventricle that prevents blood from flowing back into the ventricle
incompetent valve
cardia valves that "leak", allowing some blood to flow back into the chamber from which it came
stenosed valve
values that are narrower than normal, slowing blood flow from a heart chamber
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
condition in which the bicuspid(mitral) valve extends into the left atrium, causing incompetence (leaking) of the value
rheumatic heart disease
cardiac damage resulting from a delayed inflammitory response to streptococcal infection
heart murmur
abnormal heart sound that may indicate valvular insufficiency (leaking) or stenosing (narrowing, blockage) of the value
superior vena cava
1 of 2 large veins returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
inferior vena cava
1 of 2 large veins returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
pulmonary artey
atrery that carries deoxgenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
pulmonary veins
any vien that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
pulmonary circulation
venous blood flow from the right atrium to the lung and returning to the left atrium
systemic circulation
blood flow from the left ventricle to all parts of the body and back to the right atrium
coronary circulation
delivery of O2 and removal of waste products from the myocardium
cornary arteries
the right and left cornary arteries are the first arteries to branch off the aorta, supply blood to the myocardium
coronary embolism
blocking of a coronary blood vessel by a clot
myocardial infarction (MI)
death of cardia muscle cells resuling from inadequate blood supply, as in coronasry thrombosis
arterosclerosis
harding of the arteries; materails such as lipids accumalate in the arterial walls, often becoming hardened via calcification
angina pectoris
severe chest pain resulting when the myocardium is deprived of sufficient O2
coronary bypass surgery
surgery to releive severly restricted coronary blood flow; viens are taken from other parts of the body and then reattached where neede to bypass the partial blockage
cardiac cycle
each complete heart beat; including contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles
stroke volume
the amount of blood that is ejected from the ventricles of the heart with each beat
cardiac output
volume of blood pumped by 1 ventricle per minute
sinoatrial node of SA node
the heart's pacemaker; where the impulse conduction of the heart normally starts; located in the wall of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava
atrioventricular node or
AV node
a small mass of impulse-generated cardiac muscles tissue near the junction of the left atrium and ventricle; part of the conduction system of the heart
purkinje fibers
specialized cells located in the walls of the ventricles; relay nerve impulses from the AV node to the ventricles, causing them to contract
electrocardiograph
machine that produces electrocardiograms, graphic records of the heart's electrical activity
electrocardiogram (ECG)
graphic record of the heart's action potentials
P wave
deflection on an ECG that occurs with depolarization of the atria
QRS complex
deflection on a ECG that occurs as a result of depolarization of the ventricles
T wave
deflection on a ECG that occurs with repolarization of the ventricle
dysrhythmia
term referring to any abnormality of cardiac rhythm
heart block
blockage of impulse conduction from atria to ventricles so that the heart beats at a slower rate then normal
artifical pacemaker
an electical device that is implanted into the heart to treat a heart block
sinus dysrhythmia
variation in the rhythm of heart rate during the breathing cycle
premature contractions or extrasystoles
contractions of the heart wall that occur before expected
fibrillation
condition in which individual muscle fibers, or small groups of fibers, contract asynchronously(out of time) with other muscle fibers in an organ' producing no effective movement
automatic external defibrillators (AEDs)
small light wieght device that detacts a person's heart rhythm
heart failure
inability of the heart to pump returned blood sufficiently
cardiomyopathy
general term for disease of the myocardium
cor pulmonale
failure of the right atrium & ventricle to pump blood effectively, resulting from obstruction of pulmonary blood flow
congestive heart failure (CHF)
left heart failure, inabilty of the left ventricle to pump effectively, resulting in congestion in the systemic and pulmonary circulation