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81 Cards in this Set

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Osmoregulation
The regulation of solute concentrations and water gain and loss
Excretion
The expulsion of nitrogen-containing waste products formed by metabolism
Osmosis
The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Osmolarity
The total concentration of solute expressed in mols; M solute/L solution
Issosmotic Solutions
Solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane in which concentrations are equal; no net movement of water
Hyperosmotic Solution
A solution whose solute concentration is greater than that of a solution separated by a permeable membrane; net flux of water in
Hypoosmotic Solution
A solution whose solute concentration is less than that of a solution separated by a permeable membrane; net flux of water out
Osmoconformer
An animal that does not actively adjust its internal osmolarity due to being isosmotic with its surroundings
Osmoregulator
An animal that actively adjusts its osmolarity due to being hyperosmotic/hoyposmotic with its surroundings
How do animals maintain osmolarity difference between themselves and their external environment?
Manipulation of body fluid concentrations via active transport
Stenohaline
An animal that is unable to tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity
Euryhaline
Animals that are able to tolerate substantial changes in external osmoregularity
True or False: All osmoregulators are euryhaline, all osmoconformers are stenohaline
False: Some osmoregulators are stenohaline, some osmoconformers are euryhaline
True or False: The greatest number of animal phyla can be found in marine environments
True
True or False: Most marine vertebrates are osmoregulators
False: Most marine verterates are osmoconformers
How does a saltwater fish, hypoosmoitc to its surroundings, maintain osmolarity?
Ingests large amounts of sea water, produces high concentrations of urine, excretes salt ions from the gills
How does a shark, hypoosmotic to its surroundings, maintain osmolarity?
Removes salt with kidneys and excretes with high urine concentrations; total solute concentraqtion becomes hyperosmotic and draws water into the body
How does a freshwater fish, hyperosmotic to its surroundings, maintain osmolarity?
Takes up salt ions through food and gills, produces large amounts of dilute urine
Anhydrobiosis
An adaptation in which animals living in temporary water sources can enter a dormant state and survive without water
How much water loss can a human withstand before dying?
About 12%
How do land animals maintain water levels?
Ingest liquid water, ingest moist food, produce via metabolsim
How are animals that live in the desert able to survive without liquid water?
Majority of water is produced by metabolism; some ingested with food
What is the ultimate function of osmoregulation?
To maintain composition of cellular cytoplasm
Why are most animals able to maintain composition of cellular cytoplasm indirectly?
If the composition of internal body fluids that bathe the cells (hemolymph in open circulatory systems, blood and interstitial fluid in closed circulatory systems) is maintained, so will solute concentration.
Transport Epithelium
One or more layers of specialized epithelial cells that regulate solute movement
Ammonia
NH3, the nitrogenous waste that is excreted by all animals either as is (most aquatic animals) or in another form; requires vast amounts of water for dilution but little ATP to produce
Urea
Nitrogenous waste excreted by mammals, most amphibians, sharks, and some bony fishes; less toxic method of excretion requiring less water for dilution, but requires more ATP to produce
Uric Acid
Nitrogenous waste excreted by reptiles, insects, and land snails; insoluble in water, can be excreted with little water loss, but requires great amounts of ATP to produce
Excretory System
The system of an organisms body that excretes nitrogenous wastes
Key steps in Excretion (4)
1. Collection and Filtration
2. Selective Reabsorption
3. Selective Secretion
4. Excretion
Excretory Filtration
Collection of fluid through selectively permeable membranes consisting of a single layer of transport epithelium; membranes retain cells, proteins, and large molecules, forces water, solutes, and nitrogeous wastes into excretory system
Filtrate
Fluid in the excretory system created by filtration
Selective Reabsorption
Reabsorption of valuble solutes from filtrate by active transport
Selective Secretion
Addition of nonessential solutes and toxins by active transport
Protonephridium
A network of dead-end tubules lacking internal openings used in excretion; found in Platyhelminthes phylum
Flame Bulb
Caps on the smallest branches of protonephridia containing cilia that project into the tubule
Nephridiopores
Openings at the end of a protonephridium that empties urine into the external environment
Describe the path of filtrate in a protonephridium
Water and solutes from interstitial fluid are drawn into protonephridium by beating of flame bulb cilia; filtrate moves through tubules to nephridiopore in body wall and excreted
Metanephridium
A network of tubules with internal openings used in excretion; found in annelids
Nephrostome
A ciliated funnel that surounds the opening of the metanephridium
Malphigian Tubules
Organs that remove nitrogenous wastes and function in osmoregulation; found in insects and artrhopods
Describe the path of filtrate in insects and arthropods
Transport epithelium secrete solutes, nitrogenous wastes, and water into lumen of tubules; filtrate passes into digestive system; solutes and water reabsorbed, nitrogenous wastes passed out with solid waste
Kidneys
The excretory organ of vertebrates
Renal Artery
The artery that supplies blood to the kidneys
Renal Vein
The vein that drains blood from the kidneys
Ureter
The duct throug which urine exits
Urinary Bladder
The storage area where urine is held
Uretrha
The tube that empties urine from the body
Renal Cortex
The outer region of a kidney
Renal Medulla
The inner reigion of a kidney
Nephron
The functional unit of a vertebrate kidney; consists of a single long tubule and glomerulus
Glomerulus
Ball of capillaries in a nephron
Bowman's capsule
Blind end of the nephron tubule that surrounds the glomerulus
Describe the path of filtrate in a nephron
1. Bowman's Capsule
2. Proximal Tubule
3. Loop of Henle
4. Distal Tubule
5. Collecting Duct
6. Renal Pelvis
7. Uterer
Cortical Nephrons
Nephrons that have reduced loops of Henle and are almost confined to the renal cortex
Malphigian Tubules
Organs that remove nitrogenous wastes and function in osmoregulation; found in insects and artrhopods
Describe the path of filtrate in insects and arthropods
Transport epithelium secrete solutes, nitrogenous wastes, and water into lumen of tubules; filtrate passes into digestive system; solutes and water reabsorbed, nitrogenous wastes passed out with solid waste
Kidneys
The excretory organ of vertebrates
Renal Artery
The artery that supplies blood to the kidneys
Renal Vein
The vein that drains blood from the kidneys
Ureter
The duct throug which urine exits
Urinary Bladder
The storage area where urine is held
Uretrha
The tube that empties urine from the body
Renal Cortex
The outer region of a kidney
Renal Medulla
The inner reigion of a kidney
Nephron
The functional unit of a vertebrate kidney; consists of a single long tubule and glomerulus
Glomerulus
Ball of capillaries in a nephron
Bowman's capsule
Blind end of the nephron tubule that surrounds the glomerulus
Describe the path of filtrate in a nephron
1. Bowman's Capsule
2. Proximal Tubule
3. Loop of Henle
4. Distal Tubule
5. Collecting Duct
6. Renal Pelvis
7. Uterer
Cortical Nephrons
Nephrons that have reduced loops of Henle and are almost confined to the renal cortex
Juxtamedullary Nephrons
Nephrons that have Loops of Henle that extend into the renal medulla; found in mammals and birds
Why is the juxtamedullary nephron important?
Allows mammals and birds to produce urine hyperosmotic to body fluids
Afferent Arteriole
Arteriole that supplies each nephron with blood
Efferent Arteriole
Arteriole that converges from glmoerus capillaries
Peritubular Capillaries
Capilaries surrounding the proximal and distal tubules
Vasa Recta
Capillaries that serve the loop of Henle
Describe the functions of the proximal tube
Secrete protons and ammonia
Reabsorbs bicarbonate, sodium chloride, and water
Actively/passively transports nutrients (glucose, aminos, potassium) into interstitial fluid
Describe the functions of the descending end of the loop of Henle
Reabsorbs water
Increases solute concentration
Describe the functions of the ascending end of the loop of Henle
Diffuses sodium chloride into interstitial fluid
Describe the functions of the distal tube
Secretes potassium and protons
Reabsorbs sodium chloride, bicarbonate, and water
Describe the functions of the collecting duct
Reabsorbs water
Reabsorbs some urea
Reabsorbs sodium chloride