Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/35

Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Target Cells
Periperal cells that can respond to a particular hormone.
Hormone Receptor
A protein in the cell membrane, or within the cytoplasm or nucleus, to which a hormone specifically binds to trigger its actions on a target cell.
Extracellular Receptors
Located in cell membrane, targeted by amino acid derivatives, peptides, and eicosanoids; also operates through a second messenger such as cyclic-AMP.
Intracellular Receptors
Located in cytoplasm or nucleus, targeted by steroid and thyroid hormones, operates through changes in gene expression, thyroid hormones can also act on mitochondria.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Triggers thyroid hormone release.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates glucocorticoid release from adrenal gland.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Stimulates estrogen secretion, egg production (females), sperm production (males).
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Triggers ovulation, progestin production (females), androgen production (males).
Prolactin (PRL)
Stimulates mammary gland development and milk secretion.
Growth Hormone (hGH)
Stimulates cell growth via somatomedins released from liver.
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Uncertain significance in healthy adults.
Antiduretic Hormone (ADH)
Reduces water loss in the urine, and increases thirst.
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contraction, milk delivery; also stimulates prostate gland smooth muscle.
C Cells
Scattered outside of follicle epithelium, secrete calcitonin.
Adrenal Gland
Made of two parts: Adrenal Cortex (outer) and Adrenal Medulla (inner).
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Uncertain significance in healthy adults.
Antiduretic Hormone (ADH)
Reduces water loss in the urine, and increases thirst.
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contraction, milk delivery; also stimulates prostate gland smooth muscle.
C Cells
Scattered outside of follicle epithelium, secrete calcitonin.
Adrenal Gland
Made of two parts: Adrenal Cortex (outer) and Adrenal Medulla (inner).
Glucocorticoids
Stimulated by ACTH and affects glucose metabolism.
Mineralocorticoids
Stimulated by aniotensin II and restricts loss of water, Na+ in urine, sweat, digestive tract, saliva.
Androgens
Male hormones
Adrenal Medulla
Produces two related hormones: Epinephrine(adrenaline) and Norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
Pineal Gland
Third ventricle in the brain; synthesizes melatonin.
Insulin
produced by beta cells; lowers blood glucose concentration, increases glucose uptake, storage, and use by target cells, also targets liver, muscle, and fat cells.
Glucagon
Produced by alpha cells; raises blood glucose concentration, increases glycogen breakdown and glucose synthesis, also targets liver cells.
Kidneys
Secretes 3 hormones:
Calcitrol, Erythropoietin(EPO), and renin.
Heart
Specialized muscle cell secrete atrial matriuetic peptide (ANP) to lower blood volume or blood pressure.
Thymus
Secretes thyomosins that control immune system defenses.
Adipose Tissue (fat cells)
Secretes leptin to control appetite, secretes resistin to reduce insulin response.
Testis (male gonad)
Interstitial cells secrete androgens (testosterone); sustentacular cells secrete inhibin.
Ovary (female gonad)
Follicle cells secrete estrogens and inhibin; also corpus luteum cells secrete estrogens and progesterone.
Placenta
Secretes several hormones in pregnancy.
Hormones and Behavior:
-Sex Hormones
-Thyroid Hormones
-Antidiuretic Hormones
-Testosterone fosters aggresiveness; estrogen fosters sexual receptivity
-Excess leads to nervousness, restlessness; deficiency leads to sluggishness
-leads to feeling thirst, water intake.