Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The passage of substances accross and into tissues
A musculomembranous tube, about 30 feet long, extending from the mouth to the anus and lined with a mucous memebrane; digestive tract; gastrointestinal tract
alimentary canal
anorganic chemical coumpound composed of one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups
amino acids
an enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules
the opening through which the solid wastes are eliminated from the body
a watery fluid containing albumin, glucose, and electrolytes that accummulates in the peritoneal cavity in association with certain disease conditions
ascitic fluid
One of two teeth between the molars and canines of the upper and lower jaw
bicuspid tooth
A bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver
The orange-yellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span
The portion of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric opening of the stomach to the anus
Any one of four teeth, two in each jaw, situated immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches; cuspid tooth
canine tooth
The muscular ring (sphincter) in the stomach that controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach
cariac sphincter
A cul-de-sac containing the first part of the large intestine. It joins the ileum, the last segment of the small intestine
Abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
The liquidlike material of partially digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach just before it is released into the duodenum
The portion of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum
The duct formed by the joining of the cystic duct and hepatic duct
common bile duct
The part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line
The first set of primary teeth; baby teeth
deciduous teeth
The act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus
The chief material of teeth surrounding the pulp and situated inside of the enamel and cementum
An allied health professional trained to plan nutrition programs for sick as well as healthy people
The process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by the body cells
Thre first portion of the small intestine; the shortest, widest, & most fixed portion of small intestine
To disperse a liquid into another liquid, making a colloidal suspension
A hard, white substance that covers the dentin of the crown of a tooth; hardest substance of the body
A gland that secretes its enzymes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts
endocrine gland
A protein produced by living cells that catalyzed chemical reactions in organic matter
A muscular canal, about 24 cm long, extending from the pharynx to the stomach
A gland that secretes its enzymes into a network of tiny ducts that transport it to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
exocrine gland
Any of several organic acids produced by the hydrolysis of neutral fats
fatty acids
Wast or excrement from the digestive tract that is formed in the intestine and expelled through the rectum
A pear-shaped excretory sac lodged in a fossa on the visceral surface of the right lobe of the liver
A medical doctor who specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and bile duct
A procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube
A horomone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar level is dangerously low
A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids
A complex sugar (starch) that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells; formed from glucose and stored chiefly in the liver and muscle cells
The conversion of simple sugar into a complex form of sugar for storage in the liver
The breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the liver, releasing it back into the circulating blood in response to a very low blood sugar level
Liver cell
A compounding consisting of hydrogen and chlorine
hydrochloric acid
The distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum
One of the eight front teeth, four in each dental arch
A naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood
The intermediate or middle of the three portions of the small intestine; connects proximally with the duodenum & distally with the ileum
The process of irrigating, or washing out an organ, usually the bladder, bowel, paranasal sinuses, or stomach for therapeutic purposes
An enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats
The largest gland of the body and one of its most complex organs
The lower portion of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of the small and large intestines
lower GI tract
Chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
Any of 12 teeth, 6 in each dental arch, located posterior to the premolar teeth
molar tooth
An allied health professional who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition
The section of the pharynx leading away from the oral cavity
A structure that forms the roof of the mouth
An elongated organ approximately 6-9 inches long, located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen the secretes various substances such as digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon
a small nipple-shaped projection that extend from collagen fibers, the capillary blood vessels, and sometimes the nerves of the dermis
One of the largest pairs of salivary glands that lie at the side of the face just below and in front of the external ear
parotid gland
The coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the ureters
The full set of teeth (32) that replace the deciduous or temporary teeth
permanent teeth
The throat
Any soft, spongy tissue
A thickened muscular ring in the stomach that regulates the passage of food from the pylorus of the stomach into the duodenum
pyloric sphincter
The portion of the large intestine, about 12 cm long, continuous with the descending sigmoid colon, just proximal to the anal canal
A ridge or fold
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth
One of the three pairs of glands secreting into the mouth
salivary glands
The portion of the colon that extends from the end of the descending colon in the pelvis to the juncture of the rectum
sigmoid colon
A circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening in the body
The major organ of digestion located in the left upper quadrant of teh abdomen and divided into a body and pylorus
A compound consisting of a fatty acid (oleic, palmitic, or stearic) and glycerol
The upper part of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach
upper GI tract
The small, cone-shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
One of the many tine projections barely visible to the naked eye clustered over the entire mucous surface of the small intestine
Abnormal condition characterized by the absence of HCl in the gastric juice
Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity
An audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis; rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling noises heard when listening with a stethoscope
Difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
The frequent passage of loose, watery stools
A vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after heating; uncomfortable feeling of fullness, heartburn, bloating, nausea
Difficluty in swallowing
Excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition
Passing gas
flatus; flatulence
backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of teh lower esophageal spinchter
gastroesophageal reflux
Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes, caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood; jaundice
Abnormal, black, tarry stool containing digested blood
unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit
common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus
pruritus ani
greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces, characterized by frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter that floats
decreased mobility of teh lower 2/3 of the esophagus along with constriction of teh lower esophageal sphincter
An abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum
anal fistula
small inflammatory, noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside the cheeks of the mouth; caker sores
aphthous stomatitis
nutritional malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa
celiac disease
large, foul-smelling stools with unabsorbed fat
a large number of polyps in the large bowel
chronic polyposis
a disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative causing injury to the hepatocytes
the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
colorectal cancer
a state in which the individual's pattern of bowel elimination is characterized by a decrease in the frequency of bowel movements and the passage of hard, dry stools
digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
chrohn's disease
tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms
dental caries
An expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis
diverticular disease
describes the noninflamed outpouching or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestine, typically the sigmoid colon
Inflammation of these outpouchings called diverticula
a term used to describe painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants
swollen, twisted (tortuous) veins located in the distal end of the esophagus
esophageal varices
pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed as a result of bile crystallization
a permanently distended vein, called a varicosity, in the distal rectum or anus
acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacgterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites
A virus frequently transmitted by the fecal-oral route or due to poor hygiene, contaminated water, or shellfish
hepatitis A
Hepatitis virus transmitted from blood or body fluid of an infected individual to another individual
hepatitis B
Hepatitis virus transmitted through the intravenous route in blood transfusions or when persons share needles
Hepatitis C
Irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through and abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall
Inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primary or a secondary viral infection caused by herpes simplex
herpetic stomatitis
Absence at birth of the autonomic ganglia in a segment of the intestinal smooth muscle wall that normally stimulates peristalsis
Hirschsprung's disease (congenital megacolon)
A term used to describe an obstruction of the intestine
Complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the contents in the small or large intestines
intestinal obstruction
Telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine usually in the ileocecal region causing an obstruction
Increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of gas throught the intestines
irritable bowel syndrom (IBS); spastic colon
A precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
oral leukoplakia
An acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
A break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium Helicobacgter pylori
peptic ulcers (gastric, duodenal, perforated)
A term used to describe a group of inflammatory gum disorders, which may lead to degeneration of teeth, gums, and sometimes surrounding bones
periodontal disease
Minor inflammation of the gums
A fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces; caused by Candida albicans
A chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of teh mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers
ulcerative colitis
A rotation of loops of bowel causing a twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction
The use of very-high-frequency sound waves to provide visualization of the internal organs of teh abdomen
abdominal ultrasound
The insertion of a needle or trochar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position
abdominocentesis (paracentesis)
A hepatocellular enzyme released in elevated amounts due to liver dysfunction; serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
An enzyme found in the highest concentrations in the liver, biliary tract, and bone
alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
An enzyme secreted normally from the pancreatic cells that travels to the duodenum by way of teh pancreatic duct and aids in digestion
Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum and held in the lower intestinal tract while x-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract
barium enema (BE); lower GI series
Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
barium swallow (upper GI series)
Surgically correcting a defect of the lip
The surgical removal of the gallbladder